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Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Full Vehicle Model for Structure Borne Road Noise Prediction

As vehicle development timelines continue to shorten, it is necessary for the full vehicle NVH engineer to be able to predict performance without actual prototypes. There has been significant advancement in the accuracy of finite element modeling techniques of trimmed bodies; however accuracy is still low in the road noise mid frequency range from 150-400Hz. Also, calculation times for these frequencies are long, with very large results files in some cases. To alleviate these limitations, a Hybrid approach has been used, where a finite element suspension and drive train model is coupled with a test based Frequency Response Function (FRF) model of the trimmed body. The predicted road noise level was compared to actual vehicle tests and exhibited excellent correlation.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Real-Time Estimation of the Individual Cylinder Combustion Pressure for S.I. Engine Control

Over the last decade, many methods have been proposed for estimating the in-cylinder combustion pressure or the torque from instantaneous crankshaft speed measurements. However, such approaches are typically computationally expensive. In this paper, an entirely different approach is presented to allow the real-time estimation of the in-cylinder pressures based on crankshaft speed measurements. The technical implementation of the method will be presented, as well as extensive results obtained for a V-6 S.I. engine while varying spark timing, engine speed, engine load and EGR. The method allows to estimate the in-cylinder pressure with an average estimation error of the order of 1 to 2% of the peak pressure. It is very general in its formulation, is statistically robust in the presence of noise, and computationally inexpensive.
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Response Asymmetries During Severe Driving Maneuvers

During Phase VI of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Rollover Research Program, three of the twenty-six light vehicles tested exhibited significant response asymmetries with respect to left versus right steer maneuvers. This paper investigates possible vehicle asymmetric characteristics and unintended inputs that may cause vehicle asymmetric response. An analysis of the field test data, results from suspension and steering parameter measurements, and a summary of a computer simulation study are also given.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of A Real-Time Control Methodology in Resistance Spot Welding

The single-parameter, in-process monitor and automatic control systems for the resistance spot welding process have been studied by many investigators. Some of these have already been commercialized and used by sheet metal fabricators. These control systems operate primarily on one of the three process parameters: maximum voltage or voltage drop, dynamic resistance, or thermal expansion between electrodes during nugget formation. Control systems based on voltage or dynamic resistance have been successfully implemented for industrial applications. A great amount of experience on these two control methods has been accumulated through trial-and-error approaches. The expansion-based control system is not commonly utilized due to lack of experience and understanding of the process. Since the expansion displacement between electrodes during welding responds directly to the weld nugget formation, this control parameter provides a better means to produce more precise spot welds.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Driver Behavior in Highway Cut-in Scenarios

The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Automated Steering Controller for Vehicle Testing

Automating road vehicle control can increase the range and reliability of dynamic testing. Some tests, for instance, specify precise steering inputs which human test drivers are only able to approximate, adding uncertainty to the test results. An automated steering system has been developed which is capable of removing these limitations. This system enables any production car or light truck to follow a user-defined path, using global position feedback, or to perform specific steering sequences with excellent repeatability. The system adapts itself to a given vehicle s handling characteristics, and it can be installed and uninstalled quickly without damage or permanent modification to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Biosensing on the CD Microfluidic Platform with Genetically Engineered Proteins

The current Si/polymeric medical diagnostic sensors that are on the market only feature a one-point calibration system [1]. Such a measurement results in less accurate sensing and more in-factory sensor rejection. The two-point calibration fluidic method introduced here will alleviate some of the shortcomings of such current miniature analytical systems. Our fluidic platform is a disposable, multi-purpose micro analytical laboratory on a compact disc (CD) [2, 3]. This system is based on the centrifugal force, in which fluidic flow can be controlled by the spinning rate of the CD and thus a whole range of fluidic functions including valving, mixing, metering, splitting, and separation can be implemented. Furthermore, optical detection such as absorption and fluorescence can be incorporated into the CD control unit to obtain signals from pre-specified positions on the disc.
Technical Paper

Camera Based Automated Lane Keeping Application Complemented by GPS Localization Based Path Following

Advances in sensor solutions in the automotive sector make it possible to develop better ADAS and autonomous driving functions. One of the main tasks of highway chauffeur and highway pilot automated driving systems is to keep the vehicle between the lane lines while driving on a pre-defined route. This task can be achieved by using camera and/or GPS to localize the vehicle between the lane lines. However, both sensors have shortcomings in certain scenarios. While the camera does not work when there are no lane lines to be detected, an RTK GPS can localize the vehicle accurately. On the other hand, GPS requires at least 3 satellite connections to be able to localize the vehicle and more satellite connections and real-time over-the-air corrections for lane-level positioning accuracy. If GPS localization fails or is not accurate enough, lane line information from the camera can be used as a backup.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Comparative study of different control strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

Engine control units (ECUs) on heavy trucks have been capable of storing “last stop” or “hard stop” data for some years. These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. Previous published studies have been quite helpful in understanding the limitations and/or anomalies associated with these data. This study was designed and executed to add to the technical understanding of heavy truck event data recorders (EDR), specifically data associated with a modern Cummins power plant ECU. Emergency “full-treadle” stops were performed at many combinations of load-speed-surface coefficient conditions. In addition, brake-in-curve tests were performed on wet Jennite for various conditions of disablement of the braking system.
Journal Article

Design and Operation of a Brake and Throttle Robot

This paper describes the design and implementation of the SEA, Ltd. Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Presented are the criteria used in the initial design and the development and testing of the BTR, as well as some test results achieved with the device. The BTR is designed for use in automobiles and light trucks. It is based on a servomotor driven ballscrew, which in turn operates either the brake or accelerator. It is easily portable from one vehicle to another and compact enough to fit even smaller vehicles. The BTR is light enough so as to have minimal effect on the measurement of vehicle parameters. The BTR is designed for use as a stand-alone unit or as part of a larger control system such as the Automated Test Driver (ATD) yet allows for the use of a test driver for safety, as well as test selection, initiation, and monitoring. Installation in a vehicle will be described, as well as electronic components that support the BTR.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer Controlled Automated Steering Controller

This paper describes the design and development of the hardware, electronics, and software components of a state-of-the-art automated steering controller, the SEA, Ltd. ASC. The function of the ASC is to input to a vehicle virtually any steering profile with both high accuracy and repeatability. The ASC is designed to input profiles having steering rates and timing that are in excess of the limits of a human driver. The ASC software allows the user to specify steering profiles and select controller settings, including motor controller gains, through user-interface windows. This makes it possible for the test driver to change steering profiles and settings immediately after running any test maneuver. The motor controller used in the ASC offers self-contained signal input, output, and data storage capabilities. Thus, the ASC can operate as a standalone steering machine or it can be incorporated into typical existing, on-vehicle data acquisition systems.
Technical Paper

Drive Scenario Generation Based on Metrics for Evaluating an Autonomous Vehicle Controller

An important part of automotive driving assistance systems and autonomous vehicles is speed optimization and traffic flow adaptation. Vehicle sensors and wireless communication with surrounding vehicles and road infrastructure allow for predictive control strategies taking near-future road and traffic information into consideration to improve fuel economy. For the development of autonomous vehicle speed control algorithms, it is imperative that the controller can be evaluated under different realistic driving and traffic conditions. Evaluation in real-life traffic situations is difficult and experimental methods are necessary where similar driving conditions can be reproduced to compare different control strategies. A traditional approach for evaluating vehicle performance, for example fuel consumption, is to use predefined driving cycles including a speed profile the vehicle should follow.
Technical Paper

Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module. Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]