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Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Mixture Formation Processes During Start-Up of a Natural Gas Powered SI Engine

The mixture formation processes of methane and air in an optical access engine operating steadily at 200 RPM have been explored in order to study charge inhomogeneity in a natural gas powered spark ignition engine during transient engine cranking. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence has been used to create fuel/air equivalence ratio maps as a function of injection timing for various image planes at intervals throughout the intake and compression strokes. The work has been done using a Honda VTEC-E engine head that features port injection, four valves per cylinder, a pentroof style combustion chamber for the generation of tumble motion, and one nearly deactivated intake valve to generate swirl motion at low engine speeds in order to enhance mixing.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion Characteristics and Emissions with Stoichiometric and EGR-diluted Mixtures in SI Engines

In-cylinder charge motion is known to significantly increase turbulence intensity, accelerate combustion rate, and reduce cyclic variation. This, in turn, extends the tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the introduction of EGR results in much lowered nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and reduced fuel consumption. The present study investigates the effect of charge motion in a spark ignition engine on fuel consumption, combustion, and engine-out emissions with stoichiometric and EGR-diluted mixtures under part-load operating conditions. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine under 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure at 1600 rpm over a spark range around maximum brake torque timing. The primary intake runners are partially blocked to create different levels of tumble, swirl, and cross-tumble (swumble) motion in the cylinder before ignition.
Technical Paper

Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module. Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
Technical Paper

Impact of Tumble on Combustion in SI Engines: Correlation between Flow and Engine Experiments

The introduction of tumble into the combustion chamber is an effective method of enhancing turbulence intensity prior to ignition, thereby accelerating the burn rates, stabilizing the combustion, and extending the dilution limit. In this study, the primary intake runners are partially blocked to produce different levels of tumble motion in the cylinder during the air induction process. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine at maximum brake torque timing under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar BMEP at 1200 rpm. A method has been developed to quantify the tumble characteristics of blockages under steady flow conditions in a flow laboratory, by using the same cylinder head, intake manifold, and tumble blockages from the engine experiments.
Journal Article

Instabilities at the Low-Flow Range of a Turbocharger Compressor

The acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor are studied on a steady-flow turbocharger test bench, with the goal of advancing the current understanding of compression system instabilities at the low-flow range. Two different ducting configurations were utilized downstream of the compressor, one with a well-defined plenum (large volume) and the other with minimized (small) volume of compressed air. The present study measured time-resolved oscillations of in-duct and external pressure, along with rotational speed. An orifice flow meter was incorporated to obtain time-averaged mass flow rate. In addition, fast-response thermocouples captured temperature fluctuations in the compressor inlet and exit ducts along with a location near the inducer tips.