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Technical Paper

A Hybrid Full Vehicle Model for Structure Borne Road Noise Prediction

2005-05-16
2005-01-2467
As vehicle development timelines continue to shorten, it is necessary for the full vehicle NVH engineer to be able to predict performance without actual prototypes. There has been significant advancement in the accuracy of finite element modeling techniques of trimmed bodies; however accuracy is still low in the road noise mid frequency range from 150-400Hz. Also, calculation times for these frequencies are long, with very large results files in some cases. To alleviate these limitations, a Hybrid approach has been used, where a finite element suspension and drive train model is coupled with a test based Frequency Response Function (FRF) model of the trimmed body. The predicted road noise level was compared to actual vehicle tests and exhibited excellent correlation.
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0118
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper

A Study of Jackknife Stability of Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers with ABS Disc/Drum Brakes

2004-03-08
2004-01-1741
This study investigated the jackknife stability of Class VIII double tractor-trailer combination vehicles that had mixed braking configurations between the tractor and trailers and dolly (e.g. ECBS disc brakes on the tractor and pneumatic drum brakes on the trailers and dolly). Brake-in-turn maneuvers were performed with varying vehicle loads and surface conditions. Conditions with ABS ON for the entire vehicle (and select-high control algorithm on the trailers and dolly) found that instabilities (i.e. lane excursions and/or jackknifes) were exhibited under conditions when the surface friction coefficient was 0.3. It was demonstrated that these instabilities could be avoided while utilizing a select-low control algorithm on the trailers and dolly. Simulation results with the ABS OFF for the tractor showed that a tractor equipped with disc brakes had greater jackknife stability.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Tire Modeling Through Implementation of Load and Speed Dependent Coefficients

2005-11-01
2005-01-3543
An existing tire model was investigated for additional normal load-dependent characteristics to improve the large truck simulations developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Of the existing tire model coefficients, plysteer, lateral friction decay, aligning torque stiffness and normalized longitudinal stiffness were investigated. The findings of the investigation led to improvements in the tire model. The improved model was then applied to TruckSim to compare with the TruckSim table lookup tire model and test data. Additionally, speed-dependent properties for the NADS tire model were investigated (using data from a light truck tire).
Technical Paper

An ATV Model for CarSim

2018-04-03
2018-01-0573
This paper presents the development of a CarSim model of an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) that can be used to predict the handling and stability characteristic of the vehicle. The inertia and suspension characteristics of a subject ATV are measured and a model of the ATV is built in CarSim based on the measurements. A simplified suspension model is developed to convert the suspension compliance measurements into parameters suitable to a CarSim model. Procedures used to apply vehicle mass, inertia and suspension kinematics data in CarSim are also shown. The model is evaluated using predictions of vehicle response during a constant radius circle test. The simulation results of the maneuver are compared with the field test results shown in a recent CPSC report on ATV’s. Similar cornering characteristics are found in both results. Modifications are made to the model to study how changes to the ATV affect performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of A Real-Time Control Methodology in Resistance Spot Welding

1991-02-01
910191
The single-parameter, in-process monitor and automatic control systems for the resistance spot welding process have been studied by many investigators. Some of these have already been commercialized and used by sheet metal fabricators. These control systems operate primarily on one of the three process parameters: maximum voltage or voltage drop, dynamic resistance, or thermal expansion between electrodes during nugget formation. Control systems based on voltage or dynamic resistance have been successfully implemented for industrial applications. A great amount of experience on these two control methods has been accumulated through trial-and-error approaches. The expansion-based control system is not commonly utilized due to lack of experience and understanding of the process. Since the expansion displacement between electrodes during welding responds directly to the weld nugget formation, this control parameter provides a better means to produce more precise spot welds.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Driver Behavior in Highway Cut-in Scenarios

2017-03-28
2017-01-1402
The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
Technical Paper

Application of Enhanced Least Square to Component Synthesis Using FRF for Analyzing Dynamic Interaction of Coupled Body-Subframe System

1999-05-17
1999-01-1826
The component response synthesis approach utilizing frequency response function (FRF) has been used to analyze the dynamic interaction of two or more vehicle components coupled at discrete interface points. This method is somewhat suitable for computing higher frequency response because experimental component FRFs can be incorporated into the formulation directly. However its calculations are quite sensitive to measurement errors in the FRFs due to the several matrix inversion steps involved. In the past, researchers have essentially used a combined direct inverse and truncated singular valued decomposition (TSVD) technique to ensure a stable calculation, which is typically applied semi-empirically due to the lack of understanding of the influence of measurement error.
Technical Paper

Application of the Extended Kalman Filter to a Planar Vehicle Model to Predict the Onset of Jackknife Instability

2004-03-08
2004-01-1785
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
Technical Paper

Automated Steering Controller for Vehicle Testing

2007-08-05
2007-01-3647
Automating road vehicle control can increase the range and reliability of dynamic testing. Some tests, for instance, specify precise steering inputs which human test drivers are only able to approximate, adding uncertainty to the test results. An automated steering system has been developed which is capable of removing these limitations. This system enables any production car or light truck to follow a user-defined path, using global position feedback, or to perform specific steering sequences with excellent repeatability. The system adapts itself to a given vehicle s handling characteristics, and it can be installed and uninstalled quickly without damage or permanent modification to the vehicle.
Journal Article

Braking Behavior of Truck Drivers in Crash Imminent Scenarios

2014-09-30
2014-01-2380
Dynamic Brake Support (DBS) is a safety system that has been applied to various passenger cars and has been shown to be effective at assisting drivers in avoiding or mitigating rear-end collisions. The objective of a DBS system is to ensure that the brake system is applied quickly and at sufficient pressure when a driver responds to a collision imminent situation. DBS is capable of improving braking response due to a passenger car driver's tendency to utilize multi-stage braking. Interest is developing in using DBS on commercial vehicles. In order to evaluate the possible improvement in safety that could be realized through the use of DBS, driver braking behavior must first be analyzed to confirm that improvement is possible and necessary. To determine if this is the case, a study of the response of truck drivers' braking behavior in collision imminent situations is conducted. This paper presents the method of evaluation and results.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

1999-05-17
1999-01-1716
This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

2004-03-08
2004-01-1072
This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Technical Paper

Comparative study of different control strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0071
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-0879
Engine control units (ECUs) on heavy trucks have been capable of storing “last stop” or “hard stop” data for some years. These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. Previous published studies have been quite helpful in understanding the limitations and/or anomalies associated with these data. This study was designed and executed to add to the technical understanding of heavy truck event data recorders (EDR), specifically data associated with a modern Cummins power plant ECU. Emergency “full-treadle” stops were performed at many combinations of load-speed-surface coefficient conditions. In addition, brake-in-curve tests were performed on wet Jennite for various conditions of disablement of the braking system.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0098
As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Delta-V, Barrier Equivalent Velocity and Acceleration Pulse of a Vehicle During an Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-1187
Delta-V and Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) are terms that have been used for many years to describe aspects of what happened to a vehicle when an impact occurred. That is, they are used to describe some physical change in the vehicle state before the impact as compared to after the impact. Specifically, the Delta-V describes the change in the vehicle velocity vector from just before the impact until just after the impact. The BEV attempts to quantify the energy required to cause the damage associated with an impact. In order to understand what happens to a vehicle and its occupants during an impact, it is necessary to examine the acceleration pulse undergone by the vehicle during the impact. The acceleration pulse describes, in detail, how the Delta-V occurs as a function of time, and is related with the deformation of the vehicle as well as the object contacted by the vehicle during an impact.
Technical Paper

Derivation and Validation of New Analytical Planar Models for Simulating Multi-Axle Articulated Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1784
This paper discusses the derivation and validation of planar models of articulated vehicles that were developed to analyze jackknife stability on low-μ surfaces. The equations of motion are rigorously derived using Lagrange's method, then linearized for use in state-space models. The models are verified using TruckSim™, a popular nonlinear solid body vehicle dynamics modeling package. The TruckSim™ models were previously verified using extensive on-vehicle experimental data [1, 2]. A three-axle articulated model is expanded to contain five axles to avoid lumping the parameters for the drive and semitrailer tandems. Compromises inherent in using the linearized models are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a nonlinear tire cornering force model is coupled with the 5-axle model, and its ability to simulate a jackknife event is demonstrated. The model is shown to be valid over a wide range of inputs, up to and including loss of control, on low-and-medium-μ surfaces.
Journal Article

Design Challenges in the Development of a Large Vehicle Inertial Measurement System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0096
The (Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig) VIPER II is a full vehicle mass and inertia parameter measurement machine. The VIPER II expands upon the capabilities of its predecessor and is capable of measuring vehicles with a mass of up to 45,360 kg (100,000 lb), an increase in capacity of 18,100 kg (40,000 lb). The VIPER II also exceeds its predecessor in both the length and width of vehicles it can measure. The VIPER II's maximum vehicle width is 381 cm (150 in) an increase of 76 cm (30 in) and maximum distance from the vehicle CG to the outer most axle is 648 cm (255 in) an additional 152 cm (60 in) The VIPER II is capable of performing measurements including vehicle CG height, pitch, roll, and yaw moments of inertia and the roll/yaw cross product of inertia. While being able to measure both heavier and larger vehicles, the VIPER II is designed to maintain a maximum error of 3% for all inertia measurements and 1% for CG height.
Journal Article

Design and Operation of a Brake and Throttle Robot

2009-04-20
2009-01-0429
This paper describes the design and implementation of the SEA, Ltd. Brake and Throttle Robot (BTR). Presented are the criteria used in the initial design and the development and testing of the BTR, as well as some test results achieved with the device. The BTR is designed for use in automobiles and light trucks. It is based on a servomotor driven ballscrew, which in turn operates either the brake or accelerator. It is easily portable from one vehicle to another and compact enough to fit even smaller vehicles. The BTR is light enough so as to have minimal effect on the measurement of vehicle parameters. The BTR is designed for use as a stand-alone unit or as part of a larger control system such as the Automated Test Driver (ATD) yet allows for the use of a test driver for safety, as well as test selection, initiation, and monitoring. Installation in a vehicle will be described, as well as electronic components that support the BTR.
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