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Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

1998-02-23
980519
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0656
In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Real-Time Estimation of the Individual Cylinder Combustion Pressure for S.I. Engine Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-0209
Over the last decade, many methods have been proposed for estimating the in-cylinder combustion pressure or the torque from instantaneous crankshaft speed measurements. However, such approaches are typically computationally expensive. In this paper, an entirely different approach is presented to allow the real-time estimation of the in-cylinder pressures based on crankshaft speed measurements. The technical implementation of the method will be presented, as well as extensive results obtained for a V-6 S.I. engine while varying spark timing, engine speed, engine load and EGR. The method allows to estimate the in-cylinder pressure with an average estimation error of the order of 1 to 2% of the peak pressure. It is very general in its formulation, is statistically robust in the presence of noise, and computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

1998-02-23
980203
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Diesel Fuels Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0150
This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Mixture Formation Processes During Start-Up of a Natural Gas Powered SI Engine

1998-05-04
981387
The mixture formation processes of methane and air in an optical access engine operating steadily at 200 RPM have been explored in order to study charge inhomogeneity in a natural gas powered spark ignition engine during transient engine cranking. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence has been used to create fuel/air equivalence ratio maps as a function of injection timing for various image planes at intervals throughout the intake and compression strokes. The work has been done using a Honda VTEC-E engine head that features port injection, four valves per cylinder, a pentroof style combustion chamber for the generation of tumble motion, and one nearly deactivated intake valve to generate swirl motion at low engine speeds in order to enhance mixing.
Technical Paper

Approximating Engine Tailpipe Orifice Noise Sound Quality using a Surge Tank and In-Duct Measurements

2003-05-05
2003-01-1641
Because of the need to safely vent exhaust gases, most engine dynamometer facilities are not well suited to measuring engine exhaust orifice noise. Depending on the location of the dyno facility within the building, the exhaust system may need to be extended in order to properly vent the exhaust fumes. This additional ducting changes the acoustic modes of the exhaust system which will change the measured orifice noise. Duct additions downstream of the original orifice location also alter the termination impedance such that in-duct pressure measurements with and without the extended exhaust system can vary significantly. In order to minimize the effect of the building's exhaust system on the desired engine exhaust system measurements, the present approach terminates the engine exhaust into a large enclosed volume or surge tank before venting the gases into the building's ventilation system.
Technical Paper

Autoignition Characteristics of Primary Reference Fuels and their Mixtures

2009-11-02
2009-01-2624
This study investigates the autoignition of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) using a detailed kinetic model. The chemical kinetics software CHEMKIN is used to facilitate solutions in a constant volume reactor and a variable volume reactor, with the latter representing an IC engine. Experimental shock tube and HCCI engine data from literature is compared with the present predictions in these two reactors. The model is then used to conduct a parametric study in the constant volume reactor of the effect of inlet pressure, inlet temperature, octane number, fuel/air equivalence ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the autoignition of PRF/air mixtures. A number of interesting characteristics are demonstrated in the parametric study. In particular, it is observed that PRFs can exhibit single or two stage ignition depending on the inlet temperature. The total ignition delay, whether single or two stage, is correlated withn-C7H16/O2 ratio.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS Subjected to Abdominal Seatbelt Loading

2016-11-07
2016-22-0004
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Correlating an Air Motion Number to Combustion Metrics and Initial Flame Kernel Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0653
This study attempts to develop a correlation between an airflow motion number, combustion burn rates, and initial flame kernel development. To accomplish this task, several motion plates were evaluated on a flowbench in order to calculate a motion number that would represent the dynamic motion in the combustion chamber. Afterwards, the plates were tested on a spark ignited engine at several part throttle conditions while gathering cylinder pressure measurements. These cylinder pressure measurements would then yield the combustion burn rates for each plate. In addition to the combustion measurements, the flame kernel growth, velocity and direction of the flame kernel were measured using an AVL Visio-flame. Finally, the data was evaluated and an attempt to correlate the motion number of the plates to the different measurements for describing combustion was made.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2048
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Test Cell for Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Powertrain Technologies using Model-Controlled Dynamometers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1409
Current engine development processes typically involve extensive steady-state and simple transient testing in order to characterize the engine's fuel consumption, emissions, and performance based on several controllable inputs such as throttle, spark advance, and EGR. Steady-state and simple transient testing using idealistic load conditions alone, however, is no longer sufficient to meet powertrain development schedule requirements. Mapping and calibration of an engine under transient operation has become critically important. And, independent engine development utilizing accelerated techniques is becoming more attractive. In order to thoroughly calibrate new engines in accelerated fashion and under realistic transient conditions, more advanced testing is necessary.
Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

2003-03-03
2003-01-0390
The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Journal Article

Dynamic Stiffness of Hydraulic Bushing with Multiple Internal Configurations

2013-05-13
2013-01-1924
Fluid filled bushings are commonly used in vehicle suspension and sub-frame systems due to their spectrally-varying and amplitude-dependent properties. Since the literature on this topic is sparse, a controlled laboratory prototype bushing is first designed, constructed, and instrumented. This device provides different internal combination of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements. Experiments with sinusoidal displacement excitations are conducted on the prototype, and dynamic stiffness spectra along with fluid chamber pressure responses are measured. The frequency-dependent properties of several commonly seen hydraulic bushing designs are experimentally studied and compared under two excitation amplitudes. Further, new linear time-invariant models with one long and one short flow passages (in parallel or series) are proposed along with the limiting cases.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion Characteristics and Emissions with Stoichiometric and EGR-diluted Mixtures in SI Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-3992
In-cylinder charge motion is known to significantly increase turbulence intensity, accelerate combustion rate, and reduce cyclic variation. This, in turn, extends the tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the introduction of EGR results in much lowered nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and reduced fuel consumption. The present study investigates the effect of charge motion in a spark ignition engine on fuel consumption, combustion, and engine-out emissions with stoichiometric and EGR-diluted mixtures under part-load operating conditions. Experiments have been performed with a Chrysler 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine under 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure at 1600 rpm over a spark range around maximum brake torque timing. The primary intake runners are partially blocked to create different levels of tumble, swirl, and cross-tumble (swumble) motion in the cylinder before ignition.
Journal Article

Effect of the Tooth Surface Waviness on the Dynamics and Structure-Borne Noise of a Spur Gear Pair

2013-05-13
2013-01-1877
This article studies the effects of tooth surface waviness and sliding friction on the dynamics and radiated structure-borne noise of a spur gear pair. This study is conducted using an improved gear dynamics model while taking into account the sliding frictional contact between meshing teeth. An analytical six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) linear time varying (LTV) model is developed to predict system responses and bearing forces. The time varying mesh stiffness is calculated using a gear contact mechanics code. A Coulomb friction model is used to calculate the sliding frictional forces. Experimental measurements of partial pressure to acceleration transfer functions are used to calculate the radiated structure-borne noise level. The roles of various time-varying parameters on gear dynamics are analyzed (for a specific example case), and the predictions from the analytical model are compared with prior literature.
Technical Paper

Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

1998-02-23
980795
Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module. Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
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