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Technical Paper

A New Hardware-Assisted Inlet Port Development Process for Diesel Engines Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

As more virtual product development is integrated into the mass-production development process and overall development times are shortened, efficient intake-port design requires closer cooperation between design, simulation and test engineers. Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) has become an important link in the overall intake-port development process as it provides 3D-vector fields of flow velocity. Hence, it can be used to make direct comparisons with 3D-CFD-simulation results. The present paper describes the hardware-assisted inlet port development process for diesel engines, the cooperation among port design, 3D-CFD-simulation with the creation of alternative geometries and DGV flow-measurement of preferred variants with their capability of checking and improving simulation results.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Characteristics of Coupled Dissipative and Reactive Silencers

The acoustic characteristics of a hybrid silencer consisting of two dissipative chambers and a Helmholtz resonator are investigated first computationally and experimentally. Complex wave number and characteristic impedance are used for the dissipative chambers to account for the wave propagation through absorbing material. Three-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) is employed to predict the transmission loss in the absence of mean flow and the predictions are compared with the experimental results obtained from an impedance tube setup. Noting that the long connecting tube between acoustic elements may reduce the transmission loss near the resonance frequency, two alternative hybrid silencers with short connecting tubes are also investigated by BEM. The present study shows the effectiveness of hybrid silencers over a wide frequency range and demonstrates the importance of understanding each acoustic element, as well as their interaction in designing silencers.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of A Real-Time Control Methodology in Resistance Spot Welding

The single-parameter, in-process monitor and automatic control systems for the resistance spot welding process have been studied by many investigators. Some of these have already been commercialized and used by sheet metal fabricators. These control systems operate primarily on one of the three process parameters: maximum voltage or voltage drop, dynamic resistance, or thermal expansion between electrodes during nugget formation. Control systems based on voltage or dynamic resistance have been successfully implemented for industrial applications. A great amount of experience on these two control methods has been accumulated through trial-and-error approaches. The expansion-based control system is not commonly utilized due to lack of experience and understanding of the process. Since the expansion displacement between electrodes during welding responds directly to the weld nugget formation, this control parameter provides a better means to produce more precise spot welds.
Technical Paper

Applications of Computer Simulations for Part and Process Design for Automotive Stampings

Recent studies in sheet metal forming, conducted at universities world wide, emphasize the development of computer aided techniques for process simulation. To be practical and acceptable in a production environment, these codes must be easy to use and allow relatively quick solutions. Often, it is not necessary to make exact predictions but rather to establish the influence of process variables upon part quality, tool stresses, material flow, and material thickness variation. In cooperation with its industrial partners, the ERC for Net Shape Manufacturing of the Ohio State University has applied a number of computer codes for analysis and design of sheet metal forming operations. This paper gives a few selected examples taken from automotive applications and illustrates practical uses of computer simulations to improve productivity and reduce tool development and manufacturing costs.
Journal Article

Design Challenges in the Development of a Large Vehicle Inertial Measurement System

The (Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig) VIPER II is a full vehicle mass and inertia parameter measurement machine. The VIPER II expands upon the capabilities of its predecessor and is capable of measuring vehicles with a mass of up to 45,360 kg (100,000 lb), an increase in capacity of 18,100 kg (40,000 lb). The VIPER II also exceeds its predecessor in both the length and width of vehicles it can measure. The VIPER II's maximum vehicle width is 381 cm (150 in) an increase of 76 cm (30 in) and maximum distance from the vehicle CG to the outer most axle is 648 cm (255 in) an additional 152 cm (60 in) The VIPER II is capable of performing measurements including vehicle CG height, pitch, roll, and yaw moments of inertia and the roll/yaw cross product of inertia. While being able to measure both heavier and larger vehicles, the VIPER II is designed to maintain a maximum error of 3% for all inertia measurements and 1% for CG height.
Journal Article

Design of Catalytic Devices by Means of Genetic Algorithm: Comparison Between Open-Cell Foam and Honeycomb Type Substrates

Metallic foams or sponges are materials with a cell structure suitable for many industrial applications, such as reformers, heat catalytic converters, etc. The success of these materials is due to the combination of various characteristics such as mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange properties, low flow resistance and sound absorption. Different materials and manufacturing processes produce different type of structure and properties for various applications. In this work a genetic algorithm has been developed and applied to support the design of catalytic devices. In particular, two substrates were considered, namely the traditional honeycomb and an alternative open-cell foam type. CFD simulations of pressure losses and literature based correlations for the heat and mass transfer were used to support the genetic algorithm in finding the best compromise between flow resistance and pollutant abatement.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Suspension Parameters for The Ohio State Buckeye Bullet 2 Land Speed Vehicle

The Buckeye Bullet set domestic as well as international speed records for electric vehicles in 2004. The next generation of land speed vehicle from Ohio State called the Buckeye Bullet 2 (henceforth the BB2) will again challenge and hopefully achieve several new speed records. The Buckeye Bullet suspension worked relatively well but was found to not be quite optimal for the vehicle. The purpose of the work outlined here was to develop a new front and rear suspension for the BB2 that would be an improvement over the suspension of the original Bullet. Previous to the start of this work part of the suspension had already been designed in the form of an upright/control arm setup. This paper works on taking the suspension to completion from this point of design. Work done includes developing the final design, determining suspension parameters, building an ADAMS model, and testing the ADAMS model.
Technical Paper

Development of a 0D Model Starting from Different RANS CFD Tumble Flow Fields in Order to Predict the Turbulence Evolution at Ignition Timing

Faster combustion and lower cycle-to-cycle variability are mandatory tasks for naturally aspirated engines to reduce emission levels and to increase engine efficiency. The promotion of a stable and coherent tumble structure is considered as one of the best way to promote the in-cylinder turbulence and therefore the combustion velocity. During the compression stroke the tumble vortex is deformed, accelerated and its breakdown in smaller eddies leads to the turbulence enhancement process. The prediction of the final level of turbulence for a particular engine operating point is crucial during the engine design process because it represents a practical comparative means for different engine solutions. The tumble ratio parameter value represents a first step toward the evaluation of the turbulence level at ignition time, but it has an intrinsic limit.
Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Technical Paper

Effect of Viscoelastic Patch Damping on Casing Cover Dynamics

Many automotive components and sub-systems require viscoelastic damping treatments to control noise and vibration characteristics. To aid the dynamic design process, new approaches are needed for modeling of partial damping treatments and characterization of the overall dynamic behavior. The analytical component of the design process is illustrated via the transmission casing cover, along with supporting experiments. First, the vibration response of production casing plates is examined, with and without the constrained layer treatment. A modified flat plate is employed along with a generic housing that provides the realistic boundary conditions for subsequent work. A simplified analytical damping model for constrained viscoelastic layer damping is suggested based on assumed modal functions. Using the analytical model, design guidelines in terms of optimal patch shapes and locations are suggested.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
Technical Paper

Fabrication of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
Technical Paper

High Volume Semi-Solid Forming of Aluminum Master Cylinders

This paper addresses the design and development of a Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) aluminum master cylinder for vehicle applications. This light weight, near-net-shape, fully dense aluminum master cylinder manufactured by semi-solid forming (SSF) methods is being supplied by Delphi for automotive and truck brake systems. Several million master cylinders have been put into service over the past three years with an outstanding field service record. The application illustrates the benefits of a supplier/customer joint development in the design and manufacture of lightweight, high quality, critical application parts at a cost competitive with other less reliable casting methods. One of the advantages of using an aluminum SSM forging in place of the traditional permanent mold casting is the improved dimensional control capability which makes possible a reduction in mass and final machining.
Technical Paper

Implementing Computer Simulation into the Concept to Product Process

Process simulation for product and process design is currently being practiced in industry. However, a number of input variables have a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of computer predictions. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of finite element method (FEM) simulations for predicting part characteristics and process conditions in forming complex-shaped, industrial parts. In industrial applications, there are two objectives for conducting FEM simulations of the stamping process: (1) to optimize the product design by analyzing formability at the product design stage and (2) to reduce the tryout time and cost in process design by predicting the deformation process in advance during the die design stage. For each of these objectives, two kinds of FEM simulations are applied.
Technical Paper

Managing Distributed Systems Development through Model-Based E/E-Architecture Design

This paper sketches a model based E/E-architecture analysis and design process for the development of distributed in-vehicle systems. Together with a model based system development, the sketched analysis and design process results in a cost-effective E/E-architecture which fulfills all the requirements for the developed in-vehicle system. As an example scenario, the integration of a new feature into a car, which requires integrating a new distributed function into the existing E/E-architecture of the car, is shown.
Technical Paper

Motor Resolver Fault Diagnosis for AWD EV based on Structural Analysis

Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are getting more attention in the automotive industry with the technology improvement and increasing focus on fuel economy. For EVs and HEVs, especially all-wheel drive (AWD) EVs with two electric motors powering front and rear axles separately, an accurate motor speed measurement through resolver is significant for vehicle performance and drivability requirement, subject to resolver faults including amplitude imbalance, quadrature imperfection and reference phase shift. This paper proposes a diagnostic scheme for the specific type of resolver fault, amplitude imbalance, in AWD EVs. Based on structural analysis, the vehicle structure is analyzed considering the vehicle architecture and the sensor setup. Different vehicle drive scenarios are studied for designing diagnostic decision logic. The residuals are designed in accordance with the results of structural analysis and the diagnostic decision logic.
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation to Improve Quality and Increase Productivity in Rolling, Ring Rolling and Forging

The practical and proven use of computers in forming technology include: CAD/CAM for die making; transfer of geometric data from the customer's CAD/CAM system to that of the supplier and vice versa; application of artificial intelligence and expert systems for part and process design; simulation of metal flow to eliminate forging defects; prediction and optimization of process variables; and analysis of stresses in dies as well as prevention of premature die failure. Intelligent use of this information can lead to significant gains in product quality and productivity. This paper presents three examples of application of process simulation to forming : rolling, ring rolling and forging.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping as a Tool to Support Wind Tunnel Testing of Unconventional Unmanned Airships

Scaled models are often used to check the aerodynamic performance of full scale aircraft and airship concepts, which have gone through a conceptual and preliminary design process. Results from these tests can be quite useful to improve the design of unconventional airships whose aerodynamics might be quite different from classical configurations. Once the airship geometry has been defined, testing is required to acquire aerodynamic data necessary to implement the mathematical model of the airship needed by the flight control system to develop full autonomous capabilities. Rapid prototyping has the great potential of playing a beneficial role in unconventional autonomous airship design similarly to the success obtained in the design process of conventional aircrafts.
Technical Paper

Setup of a 1D Model for Simulating Dynamic Behaviour of External Gear Pumps

External gear pumps are widely used in many different applications because of their relatively low costs and high performances, especially in terms of volumetric and mechanical efficiency. The main weaknesses of external gear pumps can be summarized as follows: 1 Sudden increase or decrease of pressure inside volumes between teeth, which could lead respectively to noise emissions and to cavitation onset; 2 Necessity of limiting power losses and increasing volumetric efficiency, obtainable by reducing leakage flows between components; 3 Need of maintaining an ad-hoc minimum lubrication film thickness. In recent years many efforts, in terms of mathematical models and experimental tests, were done in order to limit energy losses and noise emissions. With the aim of deeply studying dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps and addressing their design, a 1D model was developed by means AMESim® code.