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Technical Paper

A Hybrid Full Vehicle Model for Structure Borne Road Noise Prediction

2005-05-16
2005-01-2467
As vehicle development timelines continue to shorten, it is necessary for the full vehicle NVH engineer to be able to predict performance without actual prototypes. There has been significant advancement in the accuracy of finite element modeling techniques of trimmed bodies; however accuracy is still low in the road noise mid frequency range from 150-400Hz. Also, calculation times for these frequencies are long, with very large results files in some cases. To alleviate these limitations, a Hybrid approach has been used, where a finite element suspension and drive train model is coupled with a test based Frequency Response Function (FRF) model of the trimmed body. The predicted road noise level was compared to actual vehicle tests and exhibited excellent correlation.
Technical Paper

A New Hardware-Assisted Inlet Port Development Process for Diesel Engines Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

2005-04-11
2005-01-0640
As more virtual product development is integrated into the mass-production development process and overall development times are shortened, efficient intake-port design requires closer cooperation between design, simulation and test engineers. Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) has become an important link in the overall intake-port development process as it provides 3D-vector fields of flow velocity. Hence, it can be used to make direct comparisons with 3D-CFD-simulation results. The present paper describes the hardware-assisted inlet port development process for diesel engines, the cooperation among port design, 3D-CFD-simulation with the creation of alternative geometries and DGV flow-measurement of preferred variants with their capability of checking and improving simulation results.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Real-Time Estimation of the Individual Cylinder Combustion Pressure for S.I. Engine Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-0209
Over the last decade, many methods have been proposed for estimating the in-cylinder combustion pressure or the torque from instantaneous crankshaft speed measurements. However, such approaches are typically computationally expensive. In this paper, an entirely different approach is presented to allow the real-time estimation of the in-cylinder pressures based on crankshaft speed measurements. The technical implementation of the method will be presented, as well as extensive results obtained for a V-6 S.I. engine while varying spark timing, engine speed, engine load and EGR. The method allows to estimate the in-cylinder pressure with an average estimation error of the order of 1 to 2% of the peak pressure. It is very general in its formulation, is statistically robust in the presence of noise, and computationally inexpensive.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Attenuation Performance of Perforated Absorbing Silencers

2001-04-30
2001-01-1435
The acoustic attenuation performance of a single-pass, perforated concentric silencer filled with continuous strand fibers is investigated theoretically and experimentally. One-dimensional analytical and three-dimensional boundary element methods are employed to predict the acoustic attenuation in the absence of mean flow. Measured complex characteristic impedance and wave number are used to account for the wave propagation through absorbing fiber. The perforation impedance facing the fiber is also presented in terms of the complex characteristic impedance and wave number. The effects of perforate duct porosity and the fiber density are examined. Comparisons of predictions with the experiments illustrate the need for multidimensional analysis at higher frequencies, while the one-dimensional treatment provides a reasonable accuracy at lower frequencies, as expected. The study also shows a significant improvement in the acoustic attenuation of the silencer due to fiber absorption.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Characteristics of Coupled Dissipative and Reactive Silencers

2003-05-05
2003-01-1643
The acoustic characteristics of a hybrid silencer consisting of two dissipative chambers and a Helmholtz resonator are investigated first computationally and experimentally. Complex wave number and characteristic impedance are used for the dissipative chambers to account for the wave propagation through absorbing material. Three-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) is employed to predict the transmission loss in the absence of mean flow and the predictions are compared with the experimental results obtained from an impedance tube setup. Noting that the long connecting tube between acoustic elements may reduce the transmission loss near the resonance frequency, two alternative hybrid silencers with short connecting tubes are also investigated by BEM. The present study shows the effectiveness of hybrid silencers over a wide frequency range and demonstrates the importance of understanding each acoustic element, as well as their interaction in designing silencers.
Journal Article

Acoustic Emission Processing for Turbocharged GDI Engine Control Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1622
In the field of passenger car engines, recent research advances have proven the effectiveness of downsized, turbocharged and direct injection concepts, applied to gasoline combustion systems, to reduce the overall fuel consumption while respecting particularly stringent exhaust emissions limits. Knock and turbocharger control are two of the most critical factors that influence the achievement of maximum efficiency and satisfactory drivability, for this new generation of engines. The sound emitted from an engine encloses many information related to its operating condition. In particular, the turbocharger whistle and the knock clink are unmistakable sounds. This paper presents the development of real-time control functions, based on direct measurement of the engine acoustic emission, captured by an innovative and low cost acoustic sensor, implemented on a platform suitable for on-board application.
Technical Paper

Active Vibration and Noise Cancellation Control of Four Cylinder Engines - An Application

1995-05-01
951299
The desire for increased comfort in both ride and quietness of passenger vehicles is receiving increased attention. To address this concern we develop an active system for vibration control that reduces vibrations on the body and simultaneously reduces noise inside the passenger cabin. The algorithm development is based upon well known principles from adaptive filter theory. The hardware implementation within a concept vehicle dedicated to noise and vibration research is presented. To gain insight with regard to vibration control, experimental modal vibration data are quantified to derive a forced response prediction model. As part of this work we investigate an approach to positioning cancellation forces on the vehicle structure in order to achieve the best noise and vibration reduction performance.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Shaft Dynamic Effects on Gear Vibration and Noise Excitations

2003-05-05
2003-01-1491
Transmission error has long been identified to be the main exciter of gear whine noise. This research effort seeks to investigate the mechanisms and principal controlling factors that affect the actual noise generation from a typical gearbox housing due to transmission error excitations. The insight gained is expected to help in identifying possible noise control procedures in typical gearing applications. The example gearbox of this paper is an aircraft auxiliary-drive idler gearbox run at low load so that transmission error is the primary mesh excitation. A limited set of dynamic noise and vibration data are collected in transient speed run-ups. A contact-mechanics gear-tooth model is used to predict the static transmission error at each mesh. A finite-element model of the shafting that incorporates complex shaft and bearing data is used to predict the shaft dynamics with the static transmission error at the gear mesh(es) as the sole excitation.
Technical Paper

An Investigative Overview of Automotive Disc Brake Noise

1999-03-01
1999-01-0142
Disc brake noise continues to be a major concern throughout the automotive industry despite efforts to reduce its occurrence. As a major supplier of automotive brake components, Delphi Chassis is continually investigating means to reduce disc brake noise. In this paper, experimental and analytical methods are discussed which reduce the occurrence of automotive disc brake noise. Three general categories of brake noise are discussed. These categories are low frequency noise, low frequency squeal, and high frequency squeal. A general description of all three categories and examples of relevant solutions are presented.
Journal Article

Analysis of Speed-Dependent Vibration Amplification in a Nonlinear Driveline System Using Hilbert Transform

2013-05-13
2013-01-1894
The engine start-up process introduces speed-dependent transient vibration problems in ground vehicle drivelines as the torsional system passes through the critical speeds during the acceleration process. Accordingly, a numerical study is proposed to gain more insights about this transient vibration issue, and the focus is on nonlinear analysis. First, a new nonlinear model of a multi-staged clutch damper is developed and validated by a transient experiment. Second, a simplified nonlinear torsional oscillator model with the multi-staged clutch damper, representing the low frequency dynamics of a typical vehicle driveline, is developed. The flywheel velocity measured during the typical engine start-up process is utilized as an excitation. The envelope function of the speed-dependent response amplification is estimated via the Hilbert transform technique. Finally, the envelope function is effectively utilized to examine the effect of multi-staged clutch damper properties.
Technical Paper

Application of Enhanced Least Square to Component Synthesis Using FRF for Analyzing Dynamic Interaction of Coupled Body-Subframe System

1999-05-17
1999-01-1826
The component response synthesis approach utilizing frequency response function (FRF) has been used to analyze the dynamic interaction of two or more vehicle components coupled at discrete interface points. This method is somewhat suitable for computing higher frequency response because experimental component FRFs can be incorporated into the formulation directly. However its calculations are quite sensitive to measurement errors in the FRFs due to the several matrix inversion steps involved. In the past, researchers have essentially used a combined direct inverse and truncated singular valued decomposition (TSVD) technique to ensure a stable calculation, which is typically applied semi-empirically due to the lack of understanding of the influence of measurement error.
Technical Paper

Approximating Engine Tailpipe Orifice Noise Sound Quality using a Surge Tank and In-Duct Measurements

2003-05-05
2003-01-1641
Because of the need to safely vent exhaust gases, most engine dynamometer facilities are not well suited to measuring engine exhaust orifice noise. Depending on the location of the dyno facility within the building, the exhaust system may need to be extended in order to properly vent the exhaust fumes. This additional ducting changes the acoustic modes of the exhaust system which will change the measured orifice noise. Duct additions downstream of the original orifice location also alter the termination impedance such that in-duct pressure measurements with and without the extended exhaust system can vary significantly. In order to minimize the effect of the building's exhaust system on the desired engine exhaust system measurements, the present approach terminates the engine exhaust into a large enclosed volume or surge tank before venting the gases into the building's ventilation system.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

1999-05-17
1999-01-1716
This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Journal Article

Design Challenges in the Development of a Large Vehicle Inertial Measurement System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0096
The (Vehicle Inertia Parameter Evaluation Rig) VIPER II is a full vehicle mass and inertia parameter measurement machine. The VIPER II expands upon the capabilities of its predecessor and is capable of measuring vehicles with a mass of up to 45,360 kg (100,000 lb), an increase in capacity of 18,100 kg (40,000 lb). The VIPER II also exceeds its predecessor in both the length and width of vehicles it can measure. The VIPER II's maximum vehicle width is 381 cm (150 in) an increase of 76 cm (30 in) and maximum distance from the vehicle CG to the outer most axle is 648 cm (255 in) an additional 152 cm (60 in) The VIPER II is capable of performing measurements including vehicle CG height, pitch, roll, and yaw moments of inertia and the roll/yaw cross product of inertia. While being able to measure both heavier and larger vehicles, the VIPER II is designed to maintain a maximum error of 3% for all inertia measurements and 1% for CG height.
Technical Paper

Design and Conduct of Precision Planetary Gear Vibration Experiments

2009-05-19
2009-01-2071
Despite a large body of analytical work characterizing the dynamic motion of planetary gears, supporting experimental data is limited. Experimental results are needed to support computer modeling and offer practical optimization guidelines to gear designers. This paper presents the design and implementation of a test facility and precision test fixtures for accurate measurement of planetary gear vibration at operating conditions. Acceleration measurements are made on all planetary bodies under controlled torque/speed conditions. Custom, high-precision test fixtures accommodate instrumentation, ensure accurate alignment, help isolate gear dynamics, and allow for variability in future testing. Results are compared with finite element and lumped parameter models.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Exhaust Silencing System for a Production Engine

2005-05-16
2005-01-2349
A prototype hybrid exhaust silencing system consisting of dissipative and reactive components is designed based on the boundary element method (BEM) with a specific emphasis on its acoustic performance as evaluated relative to a production system. The outer dimensions of the prototype system are comparable to its production counterpart, which has two silencers connected by a pipe. The predicted transmission loss by BEM for the prototype is compared with the experimental results in an impedance tube for both the prototype and production hardware, providing a design guidance for the former. The sound pressure levels measured at the tailpipe exit during the engine ramp-up experiments in a dynamometer laboratory are presented to compare the two systems, providing the final assessment.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2048
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Development of a 0D Model Starting from Different RANS CFD Tumble Flow Fields in Order to Predict the Turbulence Evolution at Ignition Timing

2014-11-11
2014-32-0048
Faster combustion and lower cycle-to-cycle variability are mandatory tasks for naturally aspirated engines to reduce emission levels and to increase engine efficiency. The promotion of a stable and coherent tumble structure is considered as one of the best way to promote the in-cylinder turbulence and therefore the combustion velocity. During the compression stroke the tumble vortex is deformed, accelerated and its breakdown in smaller eddies leads to the turbulence enhancement process. The prediction of the final level of turbulence for a particular engine operating point is crucial during the engine design process because it represents a practical comparative means for different engine solutions. The tumble ratio parameter value represents a first step toward the evaluation of the turbulence level at ignition time, but it has an intrinsic limit.
Technical Paper

Effect of Viscoelastic Patch Damping on Casing Cover Dynamics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1463
Many automotive components and sub-systems require viscoelastic damping treatments to control noise and vibration characteristics. To aid the dynamic design process, new approaches are needed for modeling of partial damping treatments and characterization of the overall dynamic behavior. The analytical component of the design process is illustrated via the transmission casing cover, along with supporting experiments. First, the vibration response of production casing plates is examined, with and without the constrained layer treatment. A modified flat plate is employed along with a generic housing that provides the realistic boundary conditions for subsequent work. A simplified analytical damping model for constrained viscoelastic layer damping is suggested based on assumed modal functions. Using the analytical model, design guidelines in terms of optimal patch shapes and locations are suggested.
Journal Article

Effect of the Tooth Surface Waviness on the Dynamics and Structure-Borne Noise of a Spur Gear Pair

2013-05-13
2013-01-1877
This article studies the effects of tooth surface waviness and sliding friction on the dynamics and radiated structure-borne noise of a spur gear pair. This study is conducted using an improved gear dynamics model while taking into account the sliding frictional contact between meshing teeth. An analytical six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) linear time varying (LTV) model is developed to predict system responses and bearing forces. The time varying mesh stiffness is calculated using a gear contact mechanics code. A Coulomb friction model is used to calculate the sliding frictional forces. Experimental measurements of partial pressure to acceleration transfer functions are used to calculate the radiated structure-borne noise level. The roles of various time-varying parameters on gear dynamics are analyzed (for a specific example case), and the predictions from the analytical model are compared with prior literature.
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