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Technical Paper

Development and Software in the Loop Validation of a Model-based Water Injection Combustion Controller for a GDI TC Engine

Turbocharged (TC) engines work at high Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), resulting in high in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, improving thermal efficiency, but at the same time increasing the possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. To mitigate knocking conditions, engine control systems typically apply spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Many recent studies have advocated Water Injection (WI) as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques. Water reduces temperatures in the end gas zone due to its high latent heat of vaporization. Furthermore, water vapor acts as diluent in the combustion process. In this paper, the development of a novel closed-loop, model-based WI controller is discussed and critically analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Control-Oriented Analytic Engine Simulator

Due to the recent anti-pollution policies, the performance increase in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is currently under the focus of automotive manufacturers. This trend drives control systems designers to investigate accurate solutions and build more sophisticated algorithms to increase the efficiency of this kind of engines. The development of a control strategy is composed of several phases and steps, and the first part of such process is typically spent in defining and investigating the logic of the strategy. During this phase it is often useful to have a light engine simulator, which allows to have robust synthetic combustion data with a low calibration and computational effort. In the first part of this paper, a description of the control-oriented ANalytical Engine SIMulator (ANESIM) is carried out.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Model-Based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-Board Application

Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load. This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the spark advance (SA) required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The calibration and experimental validation of the proposed controller is shown in detail in the paper.
Journal Article

Investigation of Water Injection Effects on Combustion Characteristics of a GDI TC Engine

This paper presents simulation and experimental results of the effects of intake water injection on the main combustion parameters of a turbo-charged, direct injection spark ignition engine. Water injection is more and more considered as a viable technology to further increase specific output power of modern spark ignition engines, enabling extreme downsizing concepts and the associated efficiency increase benefits. The paper initially presents the main results of a one-dimensional simulation analysis carried out to highlight the key parameters (injection position, water-to-fuel ratio and water temperature) and their effects on combustion (in-cylinder and exhaust temperature reduction and knock tendency suppression). The main results of such study have then been used to design and conduct preliminary experimental tests on a prototype direct-injection, turbocharged spark ignition engine, modified to incorporate a new multi-point water injection system in the intake runners.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Knock Intensity Probability Distribution and Development of 0-D Predictive Knock Model for a SI TC Engine

Knock is a non-deterministic phenomenon and its intensity is typically defined by a non-symmetrical distribution, under fixed operating conditions. A statistical approach is therefore the correct way to study knock features. Typically, intrinsically deterministic knock models need to artificially introduce Cycle-to-Cycle Variation (CCV) of relevant combustion parameters, or of cycle initial conditions, to generate different knock intensity values for a given operating condition. Their output is limited to the percentage of knocking cycles, once the user imposes an arbitrary knock intensity threshold to define the correlation between the number of knocking events and the Spark Advance (SA). In the first part of the paper, a statistical analysis of knock intensity is carried out: for different values of SA, the probability distributions of an experimental Knock Index (KI) are self-compared, and the characteristics of some percentiles are highlighted.