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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Injection Pressure Variation in Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0553
Compression-ignited engines are still considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, current and future emission regulations, which severely limit the production of NOx, particulate matter and 〖CO〗_2, hinder the use of diesel-like fuels. As a matter of fact, the spontaneous ignition of directly-injected Diesel leads to a combustion process that is heterogeneous by nature, therefore characterized by the simultaneous production of particulate matter and NOx. In this scenario, several innovative combustion techniques have been investigated over the past years, the goal being to benefit from the high thermal efficiency of compression-ignited engines, which results primarily from lean and unthrottled operation, while simultaneously mitigating the amount of pollutant emissions.
Journal Article

Combustion Indexes for Innovative Combustion Control

2017-09-04
2017-24-0079
The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at combustion control improvement. Nowadays, performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for drivability improvement, efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial when innovative combustions (such as LTC or RCCI) are performed, due to the high instability and the high sensitivity with respect to the injection parameters that are associated to this kind of combustion. Aging of all the components involved in the mixture preparation and combustion processes is another aspect particularly challenging, since not all the calibrations developed in the setup phase of a combustion control system may still be valid during engine life.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Approach for Non-Intrusive Closed-Loop Heat Release Estimation in Diesel Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0314
Over the past years, policies affecting pollutant emissions control for Diesel engines have become more and more restrictive. In order to meet such requirements, innovative combustion control methods have currently become a key factor. Several studies demonstrate that the desired pollutant emission reduction can be achieved through a closed-loop combustion control based on in-cylinder pressure processing. Nevertheless, despite the fact that cylinder pressure sensors for on-board application have been recently developed, large scale deployment of such systems is currently hindered by unsatisfactory long term reliability and high costs. Whereas both the accuracy and the reliability of pressure measurement could be improved in future years, pressure sensors would still be a considerable part of the cost of the entire engine management system.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission Analysis for Combustion Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-1338
Future regulations on pollutant emissions will impose a drastic cut on Diesel engines out-emissions. For this reason, the development of closed-loop combustion control algorithms has become a key factor in modern Diesel engine management systems. Diesel engines out-emissions can be reduced through a highly premixed combustion portion in low and medium load operating conditions. Since low-temperature premixed combustions are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions, the first aspect to be considered in newly developed Diesel engine control strategies is the control of the center of combustion. In order to achieve the target center of combustion, conventional combustion control algorithms correct the measured value varying main injection timing. A further reduction in engine-out emissions can be obtained applying an appropriate injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Engine Acoustic Emission Used as a Control Input: Applications to Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0613
The need for strategies that allow managing combustion in an adaptive way has recently widely increased. Especially Diesel engines aimed for clean combustion require a precise control of the combustion outputs. Acoustic emission of internal combustion engines contains a lot of information related to engine behavior and working conditions. Mechanical noise and combustion noise are usually the main contributions to the noise produced by an engine. Combustion noise in particular can be used as an indicator of the combustion that is taking place inside the combustion chamber and therefore as a reference for the control strategy. This work discusses the correlations existing between in cylinder combustion and the acoustic emission radiated by the engine and presents a possible approach to use this signal in the engine management system for control purposes.
Technical Paper

Engine and Load Torque Estimation with Application to Electronic Throttle Control

1998-02-23
980795
Electronic throttle control is increasingly being considered as a viable alternative to conventional air management systems in modern spark-ignition engines. In such a scheme, driver throttle commands are interpreted by the powertrain control module together with many other inputs; rather than directly commanding throttle position, the driver is now simply requesting torque - a request that needs to be appropriately interpreted by the control module. Engine management under these conditions will require optimal control of the engine torque required by the various vehicle subsystems, ranging from HVAC, to electrical and hydraulic accessories, to the vehicle itself. In this context, the real-time estimation of engine and load torque can play a very important role, especially if this estimation can be performed using the same signals already available to the powertrain control module.
Technical Paper

Fast Algorithm for On-Board Torque Estimation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0541
Electronic Throttle Control systems substitute the driver in commanding throttle position, with the driver acting on a potentiometer connected to the accelerator pedal. Such strategies allow precise control of air-fuel ratio and of other parameters, e.g. engine efficiency or vehicle driveability, but require detailed information about the engine operating conditions, in order to be implemented inside the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). In order to determine throttle position, an interpretation of the driver desire (revealed by the accelerator pedal position) is performed by the ECU. In our approach, such interpretation is carried out in terms of a torque request that can be appropriately addressed knowing the actual engine-vehicle operating conditions, which depend on the acting torques. Estimates of the torque due to in-cylinder pressure (indicated torque), as well as the torque required by the vehicle (load torque), must then be available to the control module.
Journal Article

Injection Pattern Design for Real Time Control of Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission

2017-03-28
2017-01-0596
Upcoming more stringent emission regulations throughout the world pose a real challenge, especially in regard to Diesel systems for passenger cars, where the need of additional after-treatment has a big impact in terms of additional system costs and available packaging space. Therefore, the need for strategies that allow managing combustion towards lower emissions, that require a precise control of the combustion outputs, is definitely increasing. Acoustic emission of internal combustion engines contains a large amount of information related to engine behavior and working conditions. Mechanical noise and combustion noise are usually the main contributions to the noise produced by an engine. In particular, recent research from the same authors of this paper demonstrated that combustion noise can be used as an indicator of the combustion that is taking place inside the combustion chamber and therefore as a reference for the control strategy.
Technical Paper

Injection Pattern Investigation for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis

2019-09-09
2019-24-0112
Nowadays, compression-ignited engines are considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, mainly due to the current emission regulations, that require increasingly stringent reductions of NOx and particulate matter, the use of diesel-like fuels is becoming a critical issue. For this reason, a large amount of research and experimentation is being carried out to investigate innovative combustion techniques suitable to simultaneously mitigate the production of NOx and soot, while improving engine efficiency. In this scenario, the combined use of compression-ignited engines and gasoline-like fuels proved to be very promising, especially in case the fuel is directly-injected in the combustion chamber at high pressure. The presented study analyzes the combustion process produced by the direct injection of small amounts of gasoline in a compression-ignited light-duty engine.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of Test Bench Conditioning Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0129
Engine test benches are crucial instruments to perform tests on internal combustion engines. Since many factors affect tests results, an engine test bench is usually equipped with several conditioning systems (oil, water and air temperature, air humidity, etc.), in order to maintain the controlled variables to the target values, throughout the test duration. The conditioning systems are often independently controlled by means of dedicated programmable logic controllers (PLC), but a centralized model-based management approach could offer several advantages in terms of promptness and accuracy. This work presents the application of such control methodology to oil, water, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) conditioning systems, where each actuator is managed coupling model-based open loop controls to closed loop actions.
Technical Paper

Remote Combustion Sensing Methodology for PCCI and Dual-Fuel Combustion Control

2015-09-06
2015-24-2420
The increasing request for pollutant emissions reduction spawned a great deal of research in the field of innovative combustion methodologies, that allow obtaining a significant reduction both in particulate matter and NOx emissions. Unfortunately, due to their nature, these innovative combustion strategies are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions. Therefore, in order to obtain a stable combustion, a closed-loop combustion control methodology is needed. Prior research has demonstrated that a closed-loop combustion control strategy can be based on the real-time analysis of in-cylinder pressure trace, that provides important information about the combustion process, such as Start (SOC) and Center of combustion (CA50), pressure peak location and torque delivered by each cylinder. Nevertheless, cylinder pressure sensors on-board installation is still uncommon, due to problems related to unsatisfactory measurement long term reliability and cost.
Technical Paper

The Use of Piezoelectric Washers for Feedback Combustion Control

2020-04-14
2020-01-1146
The use of piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensors is very popular during engine testing, but cylinder pressure information is becoming mandatory also in several on board applications, where Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) approaches require a feedback control of combustion, due to poor combustion stability and the risk of knock or misfire. Several manufacturers showed the capability to develop solutions for cylinder pressure sensing in on-board applications, and some of them have been patented. The most straight-forward approach seems the application of a piezo-electric washer as a replacement of the original washer equipping the spark plug; the injector could also be used to transfer the cylinder pressure information to the piezoelectric quartz, in diesel or GDI engines.
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