Holistic Development of Future Low NOx Emission Concepts for Heavy-Duty Applications
Further tightening of NOx emission standards as well as CO2 emission limits for commercial vehicles are currently under discussion. In the on-road market, lowering NOx emissions up to 90%, down to 0.02 g/bhp-hr, has been proposed by CARB and is evaluated by US EPA. Testing for in-service conformity using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) is currently under review in the US. In Europe, CO2 emission limits are anticipated and a CO2 monitoring program is ongoing. PEMS legislation has been recently tightened and further restrictions can be expected. Stage V legislation has been introduced in Europe and it is foreseeable that further tightening of off-road standards will take place in the future. This study deals with virtual development and evaluation of future engine and exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) technology solutions to fulfill the diverse future emission requirements with emphasis on off-road applications.