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Technical Paper

Camera Based Automated Lane Keeping Application Complemented by GPS Localization Based Path Following

Advances in sensor solutions in the automotive sector make it possible to develop better ADAS and autonomous driving functions. One of the main tasks of highway chauffeur and highway pilot automated driving systems is to keep the vehicle between the lane lines while driving on a pre-defined route. This task can be achieved by using camera and/or GPS to localize the vehicle between the lane lines. However, both sensors have shortcomings in certain scenarios. While the camera does not work when there are no lane lines to be detected, an RTK GPS can localize the vehicle accurately. On the other hand, GPS requires at least 3 satellite connections to be able to localize the vehicle and more satellite connections and real-time over-the-air corrections for lane-level positioning accuracy. If GPS localization fails or is not accurate enough, lane line information from the camera can be used as a backup.
Technical Paper

Drive Scenario Generation Based on Metrics for Evaluating an Autonomous Vehicle Controller

An important part of automotive driving assistance systems and autonomous vehicles is speed optimization and traffic flow adaptation. Vehicle sensors and wireless communication with surrounding vehicles and road infrastructure allow for predictive control strategies taking near-future road and traffic information into consideration to improve fuel economy. For the development of autonomous vehicle speed control algorithms, it is imperative that the controller can be evaluated under different realistic driving and traffic conditions. Evaluation in real-life traffic situations is difficult and experimental methods are necessary where similar driving conditions can be reproduced to compare different control strategies. A traditional approach for evaluating vehicle performance, for example fuel consumption, is to use predefined driving cycles including a speed profile the vehicle should follow.
Journal Article

Impact of Different Desired Velocity Profiles and Controller Gains on Convoy Driveability of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Operated Platoons

As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through the vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
Technical Paper

Localization and Perception for Control and Decision Making of a Low Speed Autonomous Shuttle in a Campus Pilot Deployment

Future SAE Level 4 and Level 5 autonomous vehicles will require novel applications of localization, perception, control and artificial intelligence technology in order to offer innovative and disruptive solutions to current mobility problems. This paper concentrates on low speed autonomous shuttles that are transitioning from being tested in limited traffic, dedicated routes to being deployed as SAE Level 4 automated driving vehicles in urban environments like college campuses and outdoor shopping centers within smart cities. The Ohio State University has designated a small segment in an underserved area of campus as an initial autonomous vehicle (AV) pilot test route for the deployment of low speed autonomous shuttles. This paper presents initial results of ongoing work on developing solutions to the localization and perception challenges of this planned pilot deployment.
Technical Paper

Use of Robust DOB/CDOB Compensation to Improve Autonomous Vehicle Path Following Performance in the Presence of Model Uncertainty, CAN Bus Delays and External Disturbances

Autonomous vehicle technology has been developing rapidly in recent years. Vehicle parametric uncertainty in the vehicle model, variable time delays in the CAN bus based sensor and actuator command interfaces, changes in vehicle sped, sensitivity to external disturbances like side wind and changes in road friction coefficient are factors that affect autonomous driving systems like they have affected ADAS and active safety systems in the past. This paper presents a robust control architecture for automated driving systems for handling the abovementioned problems. A path tracking control system is chosen as the proof-of-concept demonstration application in this paper. A disturbance observer (DOB) is embedded within the steering to path error automated driving loop to handle uncertain parameters such as vehicle mass, vehicle velocities and road friction coefficient and to reject yaw moment disturbances.
Technical Paper

Utilization of ADAS for Improving Performance of Coasting in Neutral

It has been discussed in numerous prior studies that in-neutral coasting, or sailing, can accomplish considerable amount of fuel saving when properly used. The driving maneuver basically makes the vehicle sail in neutral gear when propulsion is unnecessary. By disengaging a clutch or shifting the gear to neutral, the vehicle may better utilize its kinetic energy by avoiding dragging from the engine side. This strategy has been carried over to series production recently in some of the vehicles on the market and has become one of the eco-mode features available in current vehicles. However, the duration of coasting must be long enough to attain more fuel economy benefit than Deceleration Fuel Cut-Off (DFCO) - which exists in all current vehicle powertrain controllers - can bring. Also, the transients during shifting back to drive gear can result in a drivability concern.