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Journal Article

A Numerical Model for Flash Boiling of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Fuel Injector Nozzles

Fuels are formulated by a variety of different components characterized by chemical and physical properties spanning a wide range of values. Changing the ratio between the mixture component molar fractions, it is possible to fulfill different requirements. One of the main properties that can be strongly affected by mixture composition is the volatility that represents the fuel tendency to vaporize. For example, changing the mixture ratio between alcohols and hydrocarbons, it is possible to vary the mixture saturation pressure, therefore the fuel vaporization ratio during the injection process. This paper presents a 1D numerical model to simulate the superheated injection process of a gasoline-ethanol mixture through real nozzle geometries. In order to test the influence of the mixture properties on flash atomization and flash evaporation, the simulation is repeated for different mixtures characterized by different gasoline-ethanol ratio.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Attenuation Performance of Perforated Absorbing Silencers

The acoustic attenuation performance of a single-pass, perforated concentric silencer filled with continuous strand fibers is investigated theoretically and experimentally. One-dimensional analytical and three-dimensional boundary element methods are employed to predict the acoustic attenuation in the absence of mean flow. Measured complex characteristic impedance and wave number are used to account for the wave propagation through absorbing fiber. The perforation impedance facing the fiber is also presented in terms of the complex characteristic impedance and wave number. The effects of perforate duct porosity and the fiber density are examined. Comparisons of predictions with the experiments illustrate the need for multidimensional analysis at higher frequencies, while the one-dimensional treatment provides a reasonable accuracy at lower frequencies, as expected. The study also shows a significant improvement in the acoustic attenuation of the silencer due to fiber absorption.
Technical Paper

Applications of Computer Simulations for Part and Process Design for Automotive Stampings

Recent studies in sheet metal forming, conducted at universities world wide, emphasize the development of computer aided techniques for process simulation. To be practical and acceptable in a production environment, these codes must be easy to use and allow relatively quick solutions. Often, it is not necessary to make exact predictions but rather to establish the influence of process variables upon part quality, tool stresses, material flow, and material thickness variation. In cooperation with its industrial partners, the ERC for Net Shape Manufacturing of the Ohio State University has applied a number of computer codes for analysis and design of sheet metal forming operations. This paper gives a few selected examples taken from automotive applications and illustrates practical uses of computer simulations to improve productivity and reduce tool development and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper

Benchmark Comparison of Commercially Available Systems for Particle Number Measurement

Measurement of particle number was introduced in the Euro 5/6 light duty vehicle emissions regulation. Due to the complex nature of combustion exhaust particles, and to transportation, transformation and deposition mechanisms, such type of measurement is particularly complex, and regression analysis is commonly used for the comparison of different measurement systems. This paper compares various commercial instruments, developing a correlation analysis focused on PN (Particle Number) measurement, and isolating the factors that mainly influence each measuring method. In particular, the experimental activity has been conducted to allow critical comparisons between measurement techniques that are imposed by current regulations and instruments that can be used also on the test cell. The paper presents the main results obtained by analyzing instruments based on different physical principles, and the effects of different sampling locations and different operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Biosensing on the CD Microfluidic Platform with Genetically Engineered Proteins

The current Si/polymeric medical diagnostic sensors that are on the market only feature a one-point calibration system [1]. Such a measurement results in less accurate sensing and more in-factory sensor rejection. The two-point calibration fluidic method introduced here will alleviate some of the shortcomings of such current miniature analytical systems. Our fluidic platform is a disposable, multi-purpose micro analytical laboratory on a compact disc (CD) [2, 3]. This system is based on the centrifugal force, in which fluidic flow can be controlled by the spinning rate of the CD and thus a whole range of fluidic functions including valving, mixing, metering, splitting, and separation can be implemented. Furthermore, optical detection such as absorption and fluorescence can be incorporated into the CD control unit to obtain signals from pre-specified positions on the disc.
Technical Paper

CFRP Crash Absorbers in Small UAV: Design and Optimization

The high number of hull losses is a main concern in the UAV field, mostly due to the high cost of on-board equipment. A crashworthiness design can be helpful to control the extent and position of crash impact damage, minimizing equipment losses. However, the wide use of composite materials has recently put the accent on the lack of data about the behavior of these structures under operative loads, such as the crash conditions. This paper presents the outcome of a set of tests carried out to achieve a controlled crush of UAV structures, and to maximize the Specific Energy Absorption. In this work, a small-scale experimental test able to characterize the energy absorption of a Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer under compression was developed introducing self-supporting sinusoidal shape specimens, which avoid the need for complex anti-buckling devices.
Journal Article

Comparative Assessment of Multi-Axis Bushing Properties Using Resonant and Non-Resonant Methods

Shaped elastomeric joints such as engine mounts or suspension bushings undergo broadband, multi-axis loading; however, in practice, the elastomeric joint properties are often measured at stepped single frequencies (non-resonant test method). This article helps provide insight into multi-axis properties with new benchmark experiments that are designed to permit direct comparison between system resonant and non-resonant identification methods of the dynamic stiffness matrices of elastomeric joints, including multi-axis (non-diagonal) terms. The joints are constructed with combinations of inclined elastomeric cylinders to control non-diagonal terms in the stiffness matrix. The resonant experiment consists of an elastic metal beam end-supported by elastomeric joints coupling the in-plane transverse and longitudinal beam motion.
Technical Paper

Consumer Braking Performance Information Initiative

A test procedure that rates brake performance must control variability so that measured differences between vehicles are real. Tests were conducted using standard brake test procedures with three drivers in three cars on wet and dry asphalt with the ABS working and disabled. The differences between vehicles were greater than differences due to ABS condition, surface condition, and drivers. The procedure measured differences between all the vehicles with statistical certainty but used many replications and drivers. If only large differences in performance need to be distinguished, fewer replications and drivers will be needed.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Journal Article

Design of Catalytic Devices by Means of Genetic Algorithm: Comparison Between Open-Cell Foam and Honeycomb Type Substrates

Metallic foams or sponges are materials with a cell structure suitable for many industrial applications, such as reformers, heat catalytic converters, etc. The success of these materials is due to the combination of various characteristics such as mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange properties, low flow resistance and sound absorption. Different materials and manufacturing processes produce different type of structure and properties for various applications. In this work a genetic algorithm has been developed and applied to support the design of catalytic devices. In particular, two substrates were considered, namely the traditional honeycomb and an alternative open-cell foam type. CFD simulations of pressure losses and literature based correlations for the heat and mass transfer were used to support the genetic algorithm in finding the best compromise between flow resistance and pollutant abatement.
Technical Paper

Determination of Viscoelastic Core Material Properties Using Sandwich Beam Theory and Modal Experiments

Damping material for automotive structures is often quantified in terms of composite loss factor or damping ratio by using ASTM/SAE beam or modal tests. Simplified expressions have also been used to estimate certain material properties. However, none of these tests provide any information on the properties of viscoelastic core material such as rubber or adhesive in practical structures. To overcome this deficiency, a refined estimation procedure is proposed. A new sandwich beam model has been developed which describes all layers of an arbitrarily applied damping patch. By using both analytical predictions and modal experiments on a cantilever beam, spectrally-varying loss factor and shear modulus of the unknown core are determined.
Technical Paper

Development of a Closed Loop Paint Circulation System for Non-Newtonian Waterborne Coatings

Waterborne coatings are being used more widely in the automotive industry due to their environmentally benign properties. As the rheological properties of the waterborne coatings are significantly different from most solvent borne coatings, paint circulation systems that are designed for solvent borne coatings are not necessarily well suited for waterborne coatings. It is possible to fully characterize the rheology of the waterborne coatings and make an optimized design of the paint circulation system, resulting in improved finish quality and reduced operating cost.
Technical Paper

Drag Evaluation of the Bellanca Skyrocket II

The Bellanca Skyrocket II, possessor of five world speed records, is a single engine aircraft with high performance that has been attributed to a laminar flow airfoil and an all composite structure. Utilization of composite materials in the Skyrocket II is unique since this selection was made to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft. Flight tests are in progress to measure the overall aircraft drag and the wing section drag for comparison with the predicted performance of the Skyrocket. Initial results show the zero lift drag is indeed low, with CDO = 0.016.
Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Stiffness Coupling on the Modes of a Subframe-Bushing System

The elastomeric joints (bushings or mounts) in vehicle structural frames are usually described as uncoupled springs (only with diagonal terms) in large scale system models. The off-diagonal terms of an elastomeric joint have been previously ignored as they are often unknown since their properties cannot be measured in a uniaxial elastomer test system. This paper overcomes this deficiency via a scientific study of a laboratory frame that is designed to maintain a high fidelity with real-world vehicle body subframes in terms of natural modes under free boundaries. The steel beam construction of the laboratory frame, with four elastomeric mounts at the corners, permits the development of a highly accurate, yet simple, beam finite element model. This allows for a correlation study between the experiment and model that helps shed light upon the underlying physical phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Errors Associated with Transfer Path Analysis when Rotations are not Measured

Previously we had found significant errors in the interfacial force results for a source-path-receiver system where only translational motions were measured. This paper examines the sources of those errors by using computational finite and boundary element models. The example case consists of a source structure (with few modes), a receiver (with many modes) and three steel rod paths. We first formulate indirect, yet exact, methods for estimating interfacial forces, by assuming that six-dimensional motions at any location are available though we focus on only the driving points. One- and three-dimensional sub-sets of the proposed formulation are compared with the six-dimensional theory in terms of interfacial force and partial sound pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Examination of High Frequency Characterization Methods for Mounts

The knowledge of frequency-dependent dynamic stiffnesses of mounts, in axial and flexural motions, is needed to determine the behavior of many automotive sub-systems. Consequently, characterization and modeling of vibration isolators is increasingly becoming more important in mid and high frequency regimes where very few methods are known to exist. This paper critically examines some of the approximate identification methods that have been proposed in the literature. Then we present a new experimental identification method that yields frequency-dependent multi-dimensional dynamic stiffnesses of an isolator. The scope is however limited to a linear time-invariant system and our analysis is restricted to the frequency domain. The new characterization method uses two inertial elements at both ends of an isolator and free boundary conditions are maintained during testing.
Technical Paper

FEA Simulation and Experimental Validation of Catalytic Converter Structural Integrity

Non-linear FEA models are applied to three different catalytic converters, with the objective of predicting structural parameters such as shell deformation, push-out force, and mounting-system contact pressure under various conditions. The FEA modeling technique uses a novel constitutive model of the intumescent mat material typically found in ceramic-monolith converter designs. The mat constitutive model accounts for reversible and irreversible thermal expansion, allowing for the prediction of the one-way converter deflection observed in hot durability tests. In addition to this mat material model, the FEA methodology accounts for elastic and plastic shell deformation, contact between materials, and a three-dimensional temperature field in the shell and mat. For each of three designs, predictions are presented for converter canning, heat-up, and cool-down (i.e., post-heating) conditions.
Journal Article

Geometric and Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of Actual Open Cell Foam Samples by a Novel Imaging Analysis Based Algorithm

Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
Technical Paper


Flight tests of a new 13% General Aviation Airfoil - the GA(W)-2 - gloved full span onto the existing wing of a Beech Sundowner have generated chordwise pressure distributions and wake surveys. Section lift, drag and moment coefficients derived from these measurements verify wind tunnel data and theory predicting the performance of this airfoil. The effect of steps, rivets and surface coatings upon the drag of the GA(W)-2 was also evaluated.