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Technical Paper

A Study of Jackknife Stability of Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers with ABS Disc/Drum Brakes

2004-03-08
2004-01-1741
This study investigated the jackknife stability of Class VIII double tractor-trailer combination vehicles that had mixed braking configurations between the tractor and trailers and dolly (e.g. ECBS disc brakes on the tractor and pneumatic drum brakes on the trailers and dolly). Brake-in-turn maneuvers were performed with varying vehicle loads and surface conditions. Conditions with ABS ON for the entire vehicle (and select-high control algorithm on the trailers and dolly) found that instabilities (i.e. lane excursions and/or jackknifes) were exhibited under conditions when the surface friction coefficient was 0.3. It was demonstrated that these instabilities could be avoided while utilizing a select-low control algorithm on the trailers and dolly. Simulation results with the ABS OFF for the tractor showed that a tractor equipped with disc brakes had greater jackknife stability.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Response Asymmetries During Severe Driving Maneuvers

2004-03-08
2004-01-1788
During Phase VI of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Rollover Research Program, three of the twenty-six light vehicles tested exhibited significant response asymmetries with respect to left versus right steer maneuvers. This paper investigates possible vehicle asymmetric characteristics and unintended inputs that may cause vehicle asymmetric response. An analysis of the field test data, results from suspension and steering parameter measurements, and a summary of a computer simulation study are also given.
Technical Paper

Application of Anthropomorphic Test Device Crash Test Kinetics to Post Mortem Human Subject Lower Extremity Testing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0251
The primary goal of the current study was to determine ATD lower extremity loading characteristics seen in frontal crash tests and apply these characteristics to isolated PMHS lower extremity impacts. Essentially, the study attempted to re-create the kinetics experienced by the Hybrid III 50th percentile ATD (HIII) in frontal crash tests and apply this crash test loading scenario directly to PMHS specimens efficiently and while maximizing the utilization of a small number of cadaver subjects. The secondary goal of this study was to determine the relationship between PMHS and HIII lower extremity impact response. Based on this comparison, it was anticipated that PMHS posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury threshold and timing could be related to knee shear in the HIII ball-bearing knee slider mechanism. HIII lower extremity loading was analyzed from a series of twenty-eight (28) frontal barrier or vehicle to vehicle crash tests from late model vehicles.
Technical Paper

Application of Force Balance Method in Accident Reconstruction

2005-04-11
2005-01-1188
In the field of accident reconstruction, there has been a significant amount of effort devoted to the calculation and derivation of vehicle crush energy and vehicle stiffness. Crush energy is usually calculated with a crush profile and crush stiffness. But, oftentimes, crush profiles and/or crush stiffnesses are not available and accident constructionists face the situation of insufficient information. In some such cases, the force balance method can be used to reduce the uncertainty. The method follows from Newton's Third Law, i.e., the impact force exerted on one vehicle is balanced by the force exerted on the other vehicle. With the help of this method, crush profile or crush stiffness can be derived. As a result, the crush energy can then be calculated with improved accuracy. This ultimately increases the accuracy of the overall accident reconstruction. In this paper, examples will be given to illustrate the use of such a methodology.
Technical Paper

Application of the Extended Kalman Filter to a Planar Vehicle Model to Predict the Onset of Jackknife Instability

2004-03-08
2004-01-1785
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS Subjected to Abdominal Seatbelt Loading

2016-11-07
2016-22-0004
Past studies have found that a pressure based injury risk function was the best predictor of liver injuries due to blunt impacts. In an effort to expand upon these findings, this study investigated the biomechanical responses of the abdomen of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to high-speed seatbelt loading and developed external response targets in conjunction with proposing an abdominal injury criterion. A total of seven unembalmed PMHS, with an average mass and stature of 71 kg and 174 cm respectively were subjected to belt loading using a seatbelt pull mechanism, with the PMHS seated upright in a free-back configuration. A pneumatic piston pulled a seatbelt into the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus with a nominal peak penetration speed of 4.0 m/s. Pressure transducers were placed in the re-pressurized abdominal vasculature, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta, to measure internal pressure variation during the event.
Technical Paper

CFRP Crash Absorbers in Small UAV: Design and Optimization

2015-09-15
2015-01-2461
The high number of hull losses is a main concern in the UAV field, mostly due to the high cost of on-board equipment. A crashworthiness design can be helpful to control the extent and position of crash impact damage, minimizing equipment losses. However, the wide use of composite materials has recently put the accent on the lack of data about the behavior of these structures under operative loads, such as the crash conditions. This paper presents the outcome of a set of tests carried out to achieve a controlled crush of UAV structures, and to maximize the Specific Energy Absorption. In this work, a small-scale experimental test able to characterize the energy absorption of a Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer under compression was developed introducing self-supporting sinusoidal shape specimens, which avoid the need for complex anti-buckling devices.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Vehicle Occupant Compartment Material Properties Using MADYMO: Methodology and Validation

2009-06-09
2009-01-2260
During a motor-vehicle collision, an occupant may interact with a variety of interior structures. The material properties and construction of these structures can directly affect the occupant's kinetic response. Simulation tools such as MADYMO (Mathematical Dynamical Models) can be used to estimate the forces imparted to an occupant for injury mechanism and causation evaluation relative to a particular event. Depending on the impact event and the specific injury mechanism being evaluated, the selection of proper material characteristics can be quite important. A comprehensive literature review of MADYMO studies illustrates the prevalent use of generic material characteristics and the need for improved property estimation and implementation methods.
Technical Paper

Comparison of ATD to PMHS Response in the Under-Body Blast Environment

2015-11-09
2015-22-0017
A blast buck (Accelerative Loading Fixture, or ALF) was developed for studying underbody blast events in a laboratory-like setting. It was designed to provide a high-magnitude, high-rate, vertical loading environment for cadaver and dummy testing. It consists of a platform with a reinforcing cage that supports adjustable-height rigid seats for two crew positions. The platform has a heavy frame with a deformable floor insert. Fourteen tests were conducted using fourteen PMHS (post mortem human surrogates) and the Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device). Tests were conducted at two charge levels: enhanced and mild. The surrogates were tested with and without PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), and in two different postures: nominal (knee angle of 90°) and obtuse (knee angle of 120°). The ALF reproduces damage in the PMHS commensurate with injuries experienced in theater, with the most common damage being to the pelvis and ankle.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-0879
Engine control units (ECUs) on heavy trucks have been capable of storing “last stop” or “hard stop” data for some years. These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. Previous published studies have been quite helpful in understanding the limitations and/or anomalies associated with these data. This study was designed and executed to add to the technical understanding of heavy truck event data recorders (EDR), specifically data associated with a modern Cummins power plant ECU. Emergency “full-treadle” stops were performed at many combinations of load-speed-surface coefficient conditions. In addition, brake-in-curve tests were performed on wet Jennite for various conditions of disablement of the braking system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer Controlled Automated Steering Controller

2005-04-11
2005-01-0394
This paper describes the design and development of the hardware, electronics, and software components of a state-of-the-art automated steering controller, the SEA, Ltd. ASC. The function of the ASC is to input to a vehicle virtually any steering profile with both high accuracy and repeatability. The ASC is designed to input profiles having steering rates and timing that are in excess of the limits of a human driver. The ASC software allows the user to specify steering profiles and select controller settings, including motor controller gains, through user-interface windows. This makes it possible for the test driver to change steering profiles and settings immediately after running any test maneuver. The motor controller used in the ASC offers self-contained signal input, output, and data storage capabilities. Thus, the ASC can operate as a standalone steering machine or it can be incorporated into typical existing, on-vehicle data acquisition systems.
Journal Article

Development of a Roll Stability Control Model for a Tractor Trailer Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0451
Heavy trucks are involved in many accidents every year and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is viewed as a means to help mitigate this problem. ESC systems are designed to reduce the incidence of single vehicle loss of control, which might lead to rollover or jackknife. As the working details and control strategies of commercially available ESC systems are proprietary, a generic model of an ESC system that mimics the basic logical functionality of commercial systems was developed. This paper deals with the study of the working of a commercial ESC system equipped on an actual tractor trailer vehicle. The particular ESC system found on the test vehicle contained both roll stability control (RSC) and yaw stability control (YSC) features. This work focused on the development of a reliable RSC software model, and the integration of it into a full vehicle simulation (TruckSim) of a heavy truck.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Kinematic Responses and Potential Injury Mechanisms of the Jejunum during Seatbelt Loading

2015-11-09
2015-22-0009
High-speed biplane x-ray was used to research the kinematics of the small intestine in response to seatbelt loading. Six driver-side 3-point seatbelt simulations were conducted with the lap belt routed superior to the pelvis of six unembalmed human cadavers. Testing was conducted with each cadaver perfused, ventilated, and positioned in a fixed-back configuration with the spine angled 30° from the vertical axis. Four tests were conducted with the cadavers in an inverted position, and two tests were conducted with the cadavers upright. The jejunum was instrumented with radiopaque markers using a minimally-invasive, intraluminal approach without inducing preparation-related damage to the small intestine. Tests were conducted at a target peak lap belt speed of 3 m/s, resulting in peak lap belt loads ranging from 5.4-7.9 kN. Displacement of the radiopaque markers was recorded using high-speed x-ray from two perspectives.
Technical Paper

Limitations of an Integral Safety Concept in Longitudinal Traffic to Meet Vision Zero

2013-04-08
2013-01-0728
In order to meet the growing requirements on vehicle safety, additional safety systems are usually integrated that then fulfill a certain function. The function only becomes active in the defined use cases, since it could have a negative effect on the vehicle safety in other situations, or the necessity of intervention is not at all recognized. For the implementation of a traffic system without traffic fatalities, it is very difficult to implement this method, since an infinitely large number of situations have to be taken into consideration. In an integral safety concept, the individual safety systems are closely networked and act interdependently with each other. This paper will examine in simple scenarios whether it is possible to ensure accident-free driving such that the so-called Vision Zero can be realized in any case.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a 6×4 Tractor and Trailers for Use in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0693
According to NHTSA's 2011 Traffic Safety Facts [1], passenger vehicle occupant fatalities continued the strong decline that has been occurring recently. In 2011, there were 21,253 passenger vehicles fatalities compared to 22,273 in 2010, and that was a 4.6% decrease. However; large-truck occupant fatalities increased from 530 in 2010 to 635 in 2011, which is a 20% increase. This was a second consecutive year in which large truck fatalities have increased (9% increase from 2009 to 2010). There was also a 15% increase in large truck occupant injuries from 2010. Moreover, the fatal crashes involving large trucks increased by 1.9%, in contrast to other-vehicle-occupant fatalities that declined by 3.6% from 2010. The 2010 accident statistics NHTSA's report reveals that large trucks have a fatal accident involvement rate of 1.22 vehicles per 100 million vehicle miles traveled compared to 1.53 for light trucks and 1.18 for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Response to Proximal Tibia Impact

2019-04-02
2019-01-1221
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries, although rarely life threatening, affect the quality of life of the person who sustains the injury. The PCL is the primary restraint to posterior tibial translation and can be injured when the tibia moves posteriorly relative to the femur. This type of injury is common in frontal crashes where the tibia may impact the dashboard or steering column. To quantify what happens during dynamic loading of the tibial plateau, isolated cadaveric lower limbs (n = 14) were impacted at dynamic rates with a linear pneumatic ram. During the testing, a static load was applied to the quadriceps tendon to simulate active musculature. Forces as well as the stretch of the PCL were measured. The most common injuries were tibia fractures and PCL tears. The stiffness for the tests at impact velocities of 1.4 and 2.9 m/s were on average 120 N/mm and 141N/mm, respectively. A trend towards increasing femur force with increasing velocity was found.
Technical Paper

Response of Neck Muscles to Rear Impact in the Presence of Bracing

2006-07-04
2006-01-2369
In this research, cervical muscle behavior in rear impact accidents was investigated. Specifically, cervical muscle forces and muscle lengthening velocities were investigated with respect to cervical injuries. Variation of the onset time for muscle activation, variation of muscle activation level and variation of rear impact pulses were considered. The human body simulation computer program, MADYMO and anthropometric numerical human model were used to evaluate the neck. The factors mentioned above were examined with specific data being obtained from several different literature sources. Cervical muscles were separated into three groups, the sternocleidomastoideus, the flexor muscle group and the extensor muscle group. Longuscolli and spleniuscapitis were selected to represent the flexor muscle and extensor muscle groups respectively. The values and trends of the muscle forces and lengthening velocities are investigated in each muscle group.
Technical Paper

Response of Reclined Post Mortem Human Subjects to Frontal Impact

2006-04-03
2006-01-0674
The prospect of a vehicle occupant sustaining injury in a crash is dependant on many factors, including deceleration, restraint availability, restraint usage, vehicle interior geometry, and seating configuration. The relationship between these factors and injury potential has been determined by testing post-mortem human subjects and anthropomorphic test devices to evaluate occupant response to impact. Such testing by the host of researchers studying occupant injury has generated information on occupant response to impact covering a wide range of factors influencing injury outcome. There has been little testing performed with the seatback reclined from the normal position. As a result, little is known of the response of a vehicle occupant in this configuration beyond the obvious potential of the pelvis to submarine under the lap belt. There exists a need to study occupant response with a reclined seatback when submarining is not present.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

2011-09-13
2011-01-2163
Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.
Technical Paper

Simplified MADYMO Model of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

2006-07-04
2006-01-2349
Interest in pedestrian head injury has prompted a need to measure the potential of head injury resulting from vehicular impacts. A variety of head impactors have been developed to fulfill this measurement need. A protocol has been developed by the International Harmonization Research Activity (IHRA) to use head impactor measurements to predict head injury. However, the effect of certain characteristics of the various head impactors on the measurement procedure is not well understood. This includes the location of the accelerometers within the head-form and testing the head-form under the variety of conditions necessary to establish its global performance. To address this problem, a simple model of the IHRA head-form has been developed. This model was created using MADYMO© and consists of a solid sphere with a second sphere representing the vinyl covering. Stiffness and damping characteristics of the vinyl covering were determined analytically from drop test data of an IHRA head-form.
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