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Technical Paper

Application of Enhanced Least Square to Component Synthesis Using FRF for Analyzing Dynamic Interaction of Coupled Body-Subframe System

1999-05-17
1999-01-1826
The component response synthesis approach utilizing frequency response function (FRF) has been used to analyze the dynamic interaction of two or more vehicle components coupled at discrete interface points. This method is somewhat suitable for computing higher frequency response because experimental component FRFs can be incorporated into the formulation directly. However its calculations are quite sensitive to measurement errors in the FRFs due to the several matrix inversion steps involved. In the past, researchers have essentially used a combined direct inverse and truncated singular valued decomposition (TSVD) technique to ensure a stable calculation, which is typically applied semi-empirically due to the lack of understanding of the influence of measurement error.
Journal Article

Comparative Assessment of Multi-Axis Bushing Properties Using Resonant and Non-Resonant Methods

2013-05-13
2013-01-1925
Shaped elastomeric joints such as engine mounts or suspension bushings undergo broadband, multi-axis loading; however, in practice, the elastomeric joint properties are often measured at stepped single frequencies (non-resonant test method). This article helps provide insight into multi-axis properties with new benchmark experiments that are designed to permit direct comparison between system resonant and non-resonant identification methods of the dynamic stiffness matrices of elastomeric joints, including multi-axis (non-diagonal) terms. The joints are constructed with combinations of inclined elastomeric cylinders to control non-diagonal terms in the stiffness matrix. The resonant experiment consists of an elastic metal beam end-supported by elastomeric joints coupling the in-plane transverse and longitudinal beam motion.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0098
As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Determination of Viscoelastic Core Material Properties Using Sandwich Beam Theory and Modal Experiments

1999-05-17
1999-01-1677
Damping material for automotive structures is often quantified in terms of composite loss factor or damping ratio by using ASTM/SAE beam or modal tests. Simplified expressions have also been used to estimate certain material properties. However, none of these tests provide any information on the properties of viscoelastic core material such as rubber or adhesive in practical structures. To overcome this deficiency, a refined estimation procedure is proposed. A new sandwich beam model has been developed which describes all layers of an arbitrarily applied damping patch. By using both analytical predictions and modal experiments on a cantilever beam, spectrally-varying loss factor and shear modulus of the unknown core are determined.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Stiffness Coupling on the Modes of a Subframe-Bushing System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1904
The elastomeric joints (bushings or mounts) in vehicle structural frames are usually described as uncoupled springs (only with diagonal terms) in large scale system models. The off-diagonal terms of an elastomeric joint have been previously ignored as they are often unknown since their properties cannot be measured in a uniaxial elastomer test system. This paper overcomes this deficiency via a scientific study of a laboratory frame that is designed to maintain a high fidelity with real-world vehicle body subframes in terms of natural modes under free boundaries. The steel beam construction of the laboratory frame, with four elastomeric mounts at the corners, permits the development of a highly accurate, yet simple, beam finite element model. This allows for a correlation study between the experiment and model that helps shed light upon the underlying physical phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Examination of High Frequency Characterization Methods for Mounts

2001-04-30
2001-01-1444
The knowledge of frequency-dependent dynamic stiffnesses of mounts, in axial and flexural motions, is needed to determine the behavior of many automotive sub-systems. Consequently, characterization and modeling of vibration isolators is increasingly becoming more important in mid and high frequency regimes where very few methods are known to exist. This paper critically examines some of the approximate identification methods that have been proposed in the literature. Then we present a new experimental identification method that yields frequency-dependent multi-dimensional dynamic stiffnesses of an isolator. The scope is however limited to a linear time-invariant system and our analysis is restricted to the frequency domain. The new characterization method uses two inertial elements at both ends of an isolator and free boundary conditions are maintained during testing.
Technical Paper

Examination of Some Vibration Isolator Models and Their Effects on Vibration and Structure-borne Noise Transmission

2003-05-05
2003-01-1477
A vibration isolator or mount is often modeled by the Voigt model describing uni-axial (longitudinal) motion with frequency-invariant parameters. However, wave effects due to the mass distribution within the isolator are observed as the frequency is increased. Further, flexural stiffness components play an important role, leading to off-axis and coupling effects. Thus, the simplified mount models could lead to erroneous predictions of the dynamic behavior of an overall system such as automotive powertrain or chassis mounting systems. This article compares various approximate isolator models using a multi-dimensional mobility model that is based on the continuous system theory. Harmonic force and moment excitations are separately applied to a rigid body source to investigate the multi-dimensional vibratory behavior. Analysis is however limited to a linear time-invariant system and the mobility synthesis method is utilized to predict the frequency domain behavior.
Technical Paper

MADYMO Modeling of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

2005-06-14
2005-01-2740
The International Harmonization Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Working Group (IHRA PSWG) has proposed design requirements for two head-forms for vehicle hood (bonnet) impact testing. This paper discusses the development of MADYMO models representing the IHRA adult and child head-forms, validation of the models against laboratory drop tests, and assessment of the effect of IHRA geometric and mass constraints on the model response by conducting a parameter sensitivity analysis. The models consist of a multibody rigid sphere covered with a finite element modeled vinyl skin. The most important part in developing the MADYMO head-form models was to experimentally determine the material properties of the energy-absorbing portion of the head-form (vinyl skin) and incorporate these properties into MADYMO using a suitable material model. Three material models (linear isotropic, viscoelastic, hyperelastic) were examined.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling of Tire Forces on a Low Coefficient Surface

2006-04-03
2006-01-0559
There exists a fairly extensive set of tire force measurements performed on dry pavement. But in order to develop a low-coefficient of friction tire model, a set of tire force measurements made on wet pavement is required. Using formulations and parameters obtained on dry roads, and then reducing friction level to that of a wet road is not sufficient to model tire forces in a high fidelity simulation. This paper describes the process of more accurately modeling low coefficient tire forces on the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). It is believed that the tire model improvements will be useful in many types of NADS simulations, including ESC and other advanced vehicle technology studies. In order to produce results that would come from a road surface that would be sufficiently slippery, a set of tires were shaved to 4/32 inches and sent to a tire-testing lab for measurement.
Technical Paper

Structure-Borne Noise Measures and Their Correlation to Sound Radiation over a Broad Range of Frequencies

2003-05-05
2003-01-1450
Structure-borne noise within vehicle structures is often transmitted in a multi-dimensional manner and thus the vibro-acoustic model(s) of automotive powertrain or chassis must incorporate longitudinal and transverse (flexural) motions as well as their couplings. In this article, we employ the continuous system theory to model a typical vibration isolator (say the engine mounting system) and a compliant receiver that could simulate the body structure. The powertrain source is however assumed to be rigid, and both harmonic force and moment excitations are considered. Our analysis is limited to a linear time-invariant system, and the frequency domain based mobility method is utilized to synthesize the overall system. Contributions of both in-plane and flexural motions to structure-borne and radiated noise are incorporated. Two examples are considered to illustrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Elevator Door Retention During Hallway Applied Lateral Loads

2009-06-09
2009-01-2273
Most do not consider there to be a risk in pushing on, bumping into or falling against an elevator door from the hallway side. However, the lack of the elevator cars presence alone, and the potential for severe injury or even death make this seemingly mundane situation potentially critical. Standards exist relative to such situations, and past and current designs attempt to account for this possibility, still people get injured interacting with these doors every year. In order to evaluate a real-world elevator door system's ability to withstand the quasi-static and impactive loads that can be placed on it by the general public during its life, both intentionally and unintentionally, a predictive tool is needed. This work represents the combination of empirical laboratory testing and numerical modeling of a typical elevator door system exposed to quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Journal Article

The Design of a Suspension Parameter Identification Device and Evaluation Rig (SPIDER) for Military Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0696
This paper describes the mechanical design of a Suspension Parameter Identification Device and Evaluation Rig (SPIDER) for wheeled military vehicles. This is a facility used to measure quasi-static suspension and steering system properties as well as tire vertical static stiffness. The machine operates by holding the vehicle body nominally fixed while hydraulic cylinders move an “axle frame” in bounce or roll under each axle being tested. The axle frame holds wheel pads (representing the ground plane) for each wheel. Specific design considerations are presented on the wheel pads and the measurement system used to measure wheel center motion. The constraints on the axle frames are in the form of a simple mechanism that allows roll and bounce motion while constraining all other motions. An overview of the design is presented along with typical results.
Technical Paper

Vibration Power Transmission Through Multi-Dimensional Isolation Paths Over High Frequencies

2001-04-30
2001-01-1452
In many vibration isolation problems, translational motion has been regarded as a major contributor to the energy transmitted from a source to a receiver. However, the rotational components of isolation paths must be incorporated as the frequency range of interest increases. This article focuses on the flexural motion of an elastomeric isolator but the longitudinal motion is also considered. In this study, the isolator is modeled using the Timoshenko beam theory (flexural motion) and the wave equation (longitudinal motion), and linear, time-invariant system assumption is made throughout this study. Two different frequency response characteristics of an elastomeric isolator are predicted by the Timoshenko beam theory and are compared with its subsets. A rigid body is employed for the source and the receiver is modeled using two alternate formulations: an infinite beam and then a finite beam. Power transmission efficiency concept is employed to quantify the isolation achieved.
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