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Technical Paper

A 3D User and Maintenance Manual for UAVs and Commercial Aircrafts Based on Augmented Reality

2015-09-15
2015-01-2473
Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study Towards Possible Improvements of Common Rail Injectors

2002-03-04
2002-01-0500
The aim of this work is to propose modifications to the managing of the 1st generation Common Rail injectors in order to reduce actuation time towards multiple injection strategies. The current Common Rail injector driven by 1st ECU generation is capable of operating under stable conditions with a minimum dwell between two consecutive injections of 1.8 ms. This limits the possibility in using proper and efficient injection strategies for emission control purposes. A previous numerical study, performed by the electro-fluid-mechanical model built up by Matlab-Simulink environment, highlighted different area where injector may be improved with particular emphasis on electronic driving circuit and components design. Experiments carried out at injector Bosch test-bench showed that a proper control of the solenoid valve allowed reducing drastically the standard deviation during the pilot pulses.
Technical Paper

Application of Enhanced Least Square to Component Synthesis Using FRF for Analyzing Dynamic Interaction of Coupled Body-Subframe System

1999-05-17
1999-01-1826
The component response synthesis approach utilizing frequency response function (FRF) has been used to analyze the dynamic interaction of two or more vehicle components coupled at discrete interface points. This method is somewhat suitable for computing higher frequency response because experimental component FRFs can be incorporated into the formulation directly. However its calculations are quite sensitive to measurement errors in the FRFs due to the several matrix inversion steps involved. In the past, researchers have essentially used a combined direct inverse and truncated singular valued decomposition (TSVD) technique to ensure a stable calculation, which is typically applied semi-empirically due to the lack of understanding of the influence of measurement error.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Combined Optimization of Energy and Battery Thermal Management Control for a Plug-in HEV

2019-10-07
2019-24-0249
This paper presents an optimization algorithm, based on discrete dynamic programming, that aims to find the optimal control inputs both for energy and thermal management control strategies of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, in order to minimize the energy consumption over a given driving mission. The chosen vehicle has a complex P1-P4 architecture, with two electrical machines on the front axle and an additional one directly coupled with the engine, on the rear axle. In the first section, the algorithm structure is presented, including the cost-function definition, the disturbances, the state variables and the control variables chosen for the optimal control problem formulation. The second section reports the simplified quasi-static analytical model of the powertrain, which has been used for backward optimization. For this purpose, only the vehicle longitudinal dynamics have been considered.
Technical Paper

Comparative study of different control strategies for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0071
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
Technical Paper

Correlation of a CAE Hood Deflection Prediction Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0098
As we continue to create ever-lighter road vehicles, the challenge of balancing weight reduction and structural performance also continues. One of the key parts this occurs on is the hood, where lighter materials (e.g. aluminum) have been used. However, the aerodynamic loads, such as hood lift, are essentially unchanged and are driven by the front fascia and front grille size and styling shape. This paper outlines a combination CFD/FEA prediction method for hood deflection performance at high speeds, by using the surface pressures as boundary conditions for a FEA linear static deflection analysis. Additionally, custom post-processing methods were developed to enhance flow analysis and understanding. This enabled the modification of existing test methods to further improve accuracy to real world conditions. The application of these analytical methods and their correlation with experimental results are discussed in this paper.
Journal Article

Effect of Local Stiffness Coupling on the Modes of a Subframe-Bushing System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1904
The elastomeric joints (bushings or mounts) in vehicle structural frames are usually described as uncoupled springs (only with diagonal terms) in large scale system models. The off-diagonal terms of an elastomeric joint have been previously ignored as they are often unknown since their properties cannot be measured in a uniaxial elastomer test system. This paper overcomes this deficiency via a scientific study of a laboratory frame that is designed to maintain a high fidelity with real-world vehicle body subframes in terms of natural modes under free boundaries. The steel beam construction of the laboratory frame, with four elastomeric mounts at the corners, permits the development of a highly accurate, yet simple, beam finite element model. This allows for a correlation study between the experiment and model that helps shed light upon the underlying physical phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Shock Model for Vehicle Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0845
This paper describes the development of a more accurate shock absorber model in order to obtain better vehicle simulation results. Previous shock models used a single spline to represent shock force versus shock velocity curves. These models produced errors in vehicle simulations because the damper characteristics are better represented by the application of a hysteresis loop in the model. Thus, a new damper model that includes a hysteresis loop is developed using Matlab Simulink. The damper characteristics for the new model were extracted from measurements made on a shock dynamometer. The new model better represents experimental shock data. The new shock model is incorporated into two different lumped-parameter vehicle models: one is a three degree-of-freedom vehicle handling model and the other is a seven degree-of-freedom vehicle ride model. The new damper model is compared with the previous model for different shock mileages (different degrees of wear).
Technical Paper

Examination of Some Vibration Isolator Models and Their Effects on Vibration and Structure-borne Noise Transmission

2003-05-05
2003-01-1477
A vibration isolator or mount is often modeled by the Voigt model describing uni-axial (longitudinal) motion with frequency-invariant parameters. However, wave effects due to the mass distribution within the isolator are observed as the frequency is increased. Further, flexural stiffness components play an important role, leading to off-axis and coupling effects. Thus, the simplified mount models could lead to erroneous predictions of the dynamic behavior of an overall system such as automotive powertrain or chassis mounting systems. This article compares various approximate isolator models using a multi-dimensional mobility model that is based on the continuous system theory. Harmonic force and moment excitations are separately applied to a rigid body source to investigate the multi-dimensional vibratory behavior. Analysis is however limited to a linear time-invariant system and the mobility synthesis method is utilized to predict the frequency domain behavior.
Technical Paper

MADYMO Modeling of the IHRA Head-form Impactor

2005-06-14
2005-01-2740
The International Harmonization Research Activities Pedestrian Safety Working Group (IHRA PSWG) has proposed design requirements for two head-forms for vehicle hood (bonnet) impact testing. This paper discusses the development of MADYMO models representing the IHRA adult and child head-forms, validation of the models against laboratory drop tests, and assessment of the effect of IHRA geometric and mass constraints on the model response by conducting a parameter sensitivity analysis. The models consist of a multibody rigid sphere covered with a finite element modeled vinyl skin. The most important part in developing the MADYMO head-form models was to experimentally determine the material properties of the energy-absorbing portion of the head-form (vinyl skin) and incorporate these properties into MADYMO using a suitable material model. Three material models (linear isotropic, viscoelastic, hyperelastic) were examined.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation to Improve Quality and Increase Productivity in Rolling, Ring Rolling and Forging

1991-02-01
910142
The practical and proven use of computers in forming technology include: CAD/CAM for die making; transfer of geometric data from the customer's CAD/CAM system to that of the supplier and vice versa; application of artificial intelligence and expert systems for part and process design; simulation of metal flow to eliminate forging defects; prediction and optimization of process variables; and analysis of stresses in dies as well as prevention of premature die failure. Intelligent use of this information can lead to significant gains in product quality and productivity. This paper presents three examples of application of process simulation to forming : rolling, ring rolling and forging.
Technical Paper

Structure-Borne Noise Measures and Their Correlation to Sound Radiation over a Broad Range of Frequencies

2003-05-05
2003-01-1450
Structure-borne noise within vehicle structures is often transmitted in a multi-dimensional manner and thus the vibro-acoustic model(s) of automotive powertrain or chassis must incorporate longitudinal and transverse (flexural) motions as well as their couplings. In this article, we employ the continuous system theory to model a typical vibration isolator (say the engine mounting system) and a compliant receiver that could simulate the body structure. The powertrain source is however assumed to be rigid, and both harmonic force and moment excitations are considered. Our analysis is limited to a linear time-invariant system, and the frequency domain based mobility method is utilized to synthesize the overall system. Contributions of both in-plane and flexural motions to structure-borne and radiated noise are incorporated. Two examples are considered to illustrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Elevator Door Retention During Hallway Applied Lateral Loads

2009-06-09
2009-01-2273
Most do not consider there to be a risk in pushing on, bumping into or falling against an elevator door from the hallway side. However, the lack of the elevator cars presence alone, and the potential for severe injury or even death make this seemingly mundane situation potentially critical. Standards exist relative to such situations, and past and current designs attempt to account for this possibility, still people get injured interacting with these doors every year. In order to evaluate a real-world elevator door system's ability to withstand the quasi-static and impactive loads that can be placed on it by the general public during its life, both intentionally and unintentionally, a predictive tool is needed. This work represents the combination of empirical laboratory testing and numerical modeling of a typical elevator door system exposed to quasi-static and dynamic loading.
Journal Article

The Design of a Suspension Parameter Identification Device and Evaluation Rig (SPIDER) for Military Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0696
This paper describes the mechanical design of a Suspension Parameter Identification Device and Evaluation Rig (SPIDER) for wheeled military vehicles. This is a facility used to measure quasi-static suspension and steering system properties as well as tire vertical static stiffness. The machine operates by holding the vehicle body nominally fixed while hydraulic cylinders move an “axle frame” in bounce or roll under each axle being tested. The axle frame holds wheel pads (representing the ground plane) for each wheel. Specific design considerations are presented on the wheel pads and the measurement system used to measure wheel center motion. The constraints on the axle frames are in the form of a simple mechanism that allows roll and bounce motion while constraining all other motions. An overview of the design is presented along with typical results.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Validation for the 2003 Ford Expedition with ESC using ADAMS View

2009-04-20
2009-01-0453
The paper discusses the development of a model of the 2003 Ford Expedition using ADAMS View and its validation with experimental data. The front and rear suspensions are independent double A-arm type suspensions modeled using rigid links and ideal joints. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as force elements. The plots comparing the experimental tests and the simulation results are shown in this paper. Quasi-static roll and bounce tests are used to validate the suspension characteristics of the model while the Sine with Dwell and Slowly Increasing Steer maneuvers are used to validate the vehicle handling and tire-road interaction characteristics of the model. This paper also details the incorporation of an ESC model, originally developed by Kinjawadekar et al. [2] for CarSim, with the ADAMS model. The ESC is modeled in Simulink and co-simulated with the ADAMS vehicle model. Plots validating the ESC model with experimental data are also included.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for Real-Time Simulation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0144
This paper presents a 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model. Despite numerous software are nowadays commercially available, the model presented in this paper has been built starting from a blank sheet because the goal of the authors was to realize a model suitable for real-time simulation, compatible with the computational power of typical electronic control units, for on-board applications. In order to achieve this objective a complete vehicle dynamics simulation model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment: having a complete knowledge of the model's structure, it is possible to adapt its complexity to the computational power of the hardware used to run the simulation, a crucial feature to achieve real-time execution in actual ECUs.
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