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Technical Paper

Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Reducing Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Small Two-Stroke Engines

Five small two-stroke engine designs were tested at different air/fuel ratios, under steady state and transient cycles. The effects of combustion chamber design, carburetor design, lean burning, and fuel composition on performance, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were studied. All tested engines had been designed to run richer than stoichiometric in order to obtain satisfactory cooling and higher power. While hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions could be greatly reduced with lean burning, engine durability would be worsened. However, it was shown that the use of a catalytic converter with acceptably lean combustion was an effective method of reducing emissions. Replacing carburetion with in-cylinder fuel injection in one of the engines resulted in a significant reduction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.