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Technical Paper

A Universal Heat Transfer Correlation for Intake and Exhaust Flows in an Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0372
In this paper, the available correlations proposed in the literature for the gas-side heat transfer in the intake and exhaust system of a spark-ignition internal combustion engine were surveyed. It was noticed that these only by empirically fitted constants. This similarity provided the impetus for the authors to explore if a universal correlation could be developed. Based on a scaling approach using microscales of turbulence, the authors have fixed the exponential factor on the Reynolds number and thus reduced the number of adjustable coefficients to just one; the latter can be determined from a least squares curve-fit of available experimental data. Using intake and exhaust side data, it was shown that the universal correlation The correlation coefficient of this proposed heat transfer model with all available experimental data is 0.845 for the intake side and 0.800 for the exhaust side.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Catalytic Converter Performances during Cold Starts

1999-10-25
1999-01-3473
Automotive exhaust emission regulations are becoming progressively stricter due to increasing awareness of the hazardous effects of exhaust emissions. The main challenge to meet the regulations is to reduce the emissions during cold starts, because catalytic converters are ineffective until they reach a light-off temperature. It has been found that 50% to 80% of the regulated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are emitted from the automotive tailpipe during the cold starts. Therefore, understanding the catalytic converter characteristics during the cold starts is important for the improvement of the cold start performances This paper describes a mathematical model that simulates transient performances of catalytic converters. The model considers the effect of heat transfer and catalyst chemical reactions as exhaust gases flow through the catalyst. The heat transfer model includes the heat loss by conduction and convection.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Reducing Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Small Two-Stroke Engines

1996-02-01
960743
Five small two-stroke engine designs were tested at different air/fuel ratios, under steady state and transient cycles. The effects of combustion chamber design, carburetor design, lean burning, and fuel composition on performance, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were studied. All tested engines had been designed to run richer than stoichiometric in order to obtain satisfactory cooling and higher power. While hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions could be greatly reduced with lean burning, engine durability would be worsened. However, it was shown that the use of a catalytic converter with acceptably lean combustion was an effective method of reducing emissions. Replacing carburetion with in-cylinder fuel injection in one of the engines resulted in a significant reduction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Spray Cone Angle and Fuel Line Pressure in a Pressure-Swirl Injector Spray

2004-06-08
2004-01-1923
The transient cone angle of a pressure swirl spray from an injector for gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. Iso-octane was used as the fluid that was delivered at room temperature for two different static pressures, 5MPa and 8.5MPa. The iso-octane was injected into a chamber at room temperature and ambient pressure. After a rapid initial increase, the cone angle oscillates before stabilizing to a steady-state value very close to the nominal cone angle. The period of the oscillation was found to correlate well with oscillations measured in the fuel line pressure.
Technical Paper

Friction Measurement in the Valve Train with a Roller Follower

1994-03-01
940589
The valve train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod forces, and cam speed. Results are presented for one exhaust valve of a motored Cummins L-10 engine. The instantaneous cam/roller friction force was determined from the instantaneous roller speed and the pin friction torque. The pushrod force and displacement were also measured. Friction work loss was determined for both cam and roller interface as well as the upper valve train which includes the valve pushrod, rocker arm, valve guide, and valve. Roller follower slippage on the cam was also determined. A kinematic analysis with the measured data provided the normal force and contact stress at cam/roller interface.(1) Finally, the valve train friction was found to be in the mixed lubrication regime.(2) Further efforts will address the theoretical analysis of valve train friction to predict roller slippage.
Technical Paper

Helmholtz Resonator: A Multidimensional Analytical, Computational, and Experimental Study

1995-05-01
951263
Helmholtz resonators are widely used for noise reduction in vehicle induction and exhaust systems. This study investigates the effect of specific cavity dimensions of these resonators theoretically, computationaly, and experimentally. An analytical model is developed for circular concentric resonators to account for the multidimensional wave propagation in both the neck and the cavity. Driving this model with an oscillating piston isolates the interface between the neck and the resonator volume, thereby allowing, at this location, for an accurate evaluation of the empirical end correction, which is often used with the classical lumped approach in an attempt to incorporate the effect of multidimensional behavior at the transitions. The analytical method developed in the study is then compared with a similar one-dimensional analytical model that also allows for wave propagation in the neck and cavity.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sprays on In-Cylinder Flow Length Scales in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0618
The interaction of fuel sprays and in-cylinder flow in direct-injection engines is expected to alter kinetic energy and integral length scales at least during some portions of the engine cycle. High-speed particle image velocimetry was implemented in an optical four-valve, pent-roof spark-ignition direct-injection single-cylinder engine to quantify this effect. Non-firing motored engine tests were performed at 1300 RPM with and without fuel injection. Two fuel injection timings were investigated: injection in early intake stroke represents quasi-homogenous engine condition; and injection in mid compression stroke mimics the stratified combustion strategy. Two-dimensional crank angle resolved velocity fields were measured to examine the kinetic energy and integral length scale through critical portions of the engine cycle. Reynolds decomposition was applied on the obtained engine flow fields to extract the fluctuations as an indicator for the turbulent flow.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Properties on Metering in Carburetors

1971-02-01
710207
This paper considers the influence of the properties of gasolines and testing fluids on metering by carburetors. Since the fuel metering is controlled by orifices, the effects of fuel properties on orifice flow are analyzed. The results of an orifice testing program are presented, using the Reynolds number as the primary correlation parameter. The influences of fuel type, fuel temperature, and orifice geometry on the discharge coefficient are discussed, and the effect of a given fuel property change is shown. Experimental values for the variations in fluid properties with fuel type and temperature are presented for commercial gasolines, carburetor testing fluids, and pure hydrocarbons. The variation of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio among gasolines is shown to cause a change in stoichiometry, which is the equivalent of an error in metering.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Vehicle Exhaust System Components on Flow Losses and Noise in Firing Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-05-01
951260
Sound attenuation and flow loss reduction are often two competing demands in vehicle breathing systems. The present study considers a full vehicle exhaust system and investigates both the sound attenuation and the flow performance of production configurations including the catalyst, the resonator, and the muffler. Dynamometer experiments have been conducted with a firing Ford 3.0L, V-6 engine at wide-open throttle with speeds ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Measurements including the flow rates, the temperatures and the absolute dynamic pressures of the hot exhaust gases at key locations (upstream and downstream of every component) with fast-response, water-cooled piezo-resistive pressure transducers facilitate the calculation of acoustic performance of each component, as well as the determination of flow losses caused by these elements and their influence on the engine performance.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Inlet Air Conditions on Carburetor Metering

1966-02-01
660119
This paper provides data concerning the enrichment of automotive carburetors with variation of inlet air pressure and temperature. These changes occur with weather and the seasons, with altitude, and because of underhood heating. The early opening of the conventional carburetor enrichment value at altitude can add greatly to the “ normal” carburetor enrichment. Means for compensating the mixture ratio for these changes in inlet air conditions are known, but will almost certainly add to the complexity and cost of the engine induction system. The cost of improved devices must be compromised with the possible reduction in exhaust emissions and improvement in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4034
Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

2004-10-25
2004-01-2939
The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.
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