Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Field Study of Distance Perception with Large-Radius Convex Rearview Mirrors

1998-02-23
980916
One of the primary reasons that FMVSS 111 currently requires flat rearview mirrors as original equipment on the driver's side of passenger cars is a concern that convex mirrors might reduce safety by causing drivers to overestimate the distances to following vehicles. Several previous studies of the effects of convex rearview mirrors have indicated that they do cause overestimations of distance, but of much lower magnitude than would be expected based on the mirrors' levels of image minification and the resulting visual angles experienced by drivers. Previous studies have investigated mirrors with radiuses of curvature up to 2000 mm. The present empirical study was designed to investigate the effects of mirrors with larger radiuses (up to 8900 mm). Such results are of interest because of the possible use of large radiuses in some aspheric mirror designs, and because of the information they provide about the basic mechanisms by which convex mirrors affect distance perception.
Technical Paper

A Market-Weighted Description of Low-Beam Headlighting Patterns in Europe

2001-03-05
2001-01-0857
This study was designed to provide photometric information about current European low-beam headlamps. The sample included 20 low-beam headlamps manufactured for use on the 20 best-selling passenger vehicles for calendar year 1999 in 17 European countries. These 20 vehicles represent 47% of all vehicles sold in these countries. The lamps were purchased directly from vehicle dealerships, and photometered in 0.25° steps from 45° left to 45° right, and from 5° down to 7° up. The photometric information for each lamp was weighted by 1999 sales figures for the corresponding vehicle. The results are presented both in tabular form for the 25th-percentile, the median (50th-percentile), and the 75th-percentile luminous intensities, as well as in graphical form (for the median luminous intensities).
Technical Paper

A Market-Weighted Description of Low-Beam Headlighting Patterns in the U.S.

1998-02-23
980317
This study was designed to provide photometric information about current U.S. low-beam headlamps. The sample included 35 low-beam headlamps manufactured for use on the 23 best-selling passenger cars, light trucks, and vans for model year 1997. These 23 vehicles represent 45% of all vehicles sold in the U.S. The lamps were purchased directly from vehicle dealerships, and photometered in 0.5° steps from 45° left to 45° right, and from 5° down to 7° up. The photometric information for each lamp was weighted by 1997 sales figures for the corresponding vehicle. The results are presented both in tabular form for the 25th-percentile, the median (50th-percentile), and the 75th-percentile luminous intensities, as well as in graphical form (for the median luminous intensities, and median illuminance values reaching the road surface). The information is presented in aggregate form, as well as broken down by vehicle type and light source.
Technical Paper

Acceptance of Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors by U.S. Drivers

1998-02-23
980919
Five different nonplanar mirrors were evaluated as driver-side rearview mirrors in a field test using Ford employees. Two were spherical convex (differing in radius of curvature), and three were aspheric (differing primarily in the proportion of their surfaces over which radius of curvature was variable). Each participant drove for four weeks with one of the nonplanar mirrors. At three times during the test the participants filled out questionnaires concerning their experience with the mirrors. Driver preferences for the experimental mirrors increased moderately between surveys at one week and at four weeks. At four weeks, all five nonplanar mirrors were preferred to the standard flat mirror by at least a small amount. For each of the five mirror designs there was a large range of opinion. Most notably, a small number of people strongly disliked the aspheric design that involved the largest variable-radius area.
Technical Paper

An Analog Computer Method for Determining “g” Loads and Resulting Motions in Automobile and Truck Wheel-Frame Systems

1971-02-01
710165
A general analog computer procedure is presented for the dynamic analysis of a selected realistic model of an automobile or truck vehicle wheel-frame system. The elements of the model are assigned a set of values based on a preselected vehicle, and the model is then subjected to a number of inputs which correspond to test track road disturbances at various speeds. This procedure is successively applied to a number of typical vehicles. Time-varying values of wheel spindle and frame reaction “g” loads, acclerations, and displacements are recorded, and illustrative waveshapes are depicted. Tables indicating extreme values of these quantities are also included.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Applying Adaptive Headlighting to the Current U.S. and European Low-Beam Patterns

2002-03-04
2002-01-0524
This analytical study examined the potential benefits of applying two embodiments of adaptive lighting to the U.S. and European low-beam patterns: curve lighting that involves shifting the beam horizontally into the curve, and motorway lighting that involves shifting the beam vertically upward. The curve lighting simulations paired 240-m radius left and right curves with a horizontal shift of 10°, and 80-m radius curves with a horizontal beam shift of 15°. The motorway lighting simulations involved upward aim shifts of 0.25° and 0.5°. For both curve and motorway lighting, changes in both seeing and glare illuminance were considered. Market-weighted model year 2000 U.S. and European beam patterns were used. We conclude that curve lighting, as simulated here, would substantially improve seeing performance on curves for both types of beams. On right curves (but not on left curves) there would be an increase in disability glare for oncoming traffic.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Imaging of Fuel Distribution, Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3753
A combination of imaging techniques for investigations of highly transient processes and cyclic variations in internal combustion engines is presented. The single high-speed camera setup uses a CMOS camera combined with a two-stage image-intensifier and two excimer lasers. Fuel mixing, ignition and combustion were monitored via planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of toluene as a tracer that was added to iso-octane in combination with the simultaneous recording of light emission from the spark plasma and OH* chemiluminescence of the developing flame. Image frame rates of 12 kHz for hundreds of cycles were achieved. Application to misfire events in a spray-guided gasoline direct-injection engine is described to illustrate the merits of the technique.
Technical Paper

Current Status and Future Prospects for Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors

2000-03-06
2000-01-0324
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards currently require driver-side rearview mirrors to be flat. For rearview mirrors of typical size, this requirement normally results in a blind zone on the driver side that is large enough to conceal an average size passenger car. In recent years a number of studies have suggested that nonplanar rearview mirrors may be an effective solution to this problem. This paper reviews the evidence on possible effectiveness of nonplanar mirrors, assesses the strength of that evidence, and makes tentative recommendations. The main conclusion is that the use of nonplanar mirrors would probably result in a net gain in safety, but that the effectiveness of the mirrors is likely to depend on details of how they are implemented. Issues that should be resolved by additional research (some of which is already underway) are: (1) How would U.S. drivers respond to a mixed fleet of vehicles, some of which had flat mirrors and some of which had nonplanar mirrors?
Journal Article

Cycle-Resolved NO Measurements in a Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Fast Exhaust Measurements and High-Speed OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1072
A potential correlation between OH* chemiluminescence and exhaust NO concentration is investigated to pursue a simple diagnostic technique for measurements of NO cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. Previous investigations of NO formation in a direct-injection gasoline engine have indicated that there may be a correlation between the concentration of NO and OH* chemiluminescence. Shortcomings of this work, namely phase-locked measurements, were overcome in the present study by using highspeed imaging capability to obtain chemiluminescence within the entire engine cycle and from entire engine cylinder volume. Cycle-resolved NO exhaust gas detection were performed synchronously with the chemiluminescence measurements on an optical spark-ignited engine with spray-guided direct-injection. A quartz cylinder liner, head and piston windows provide optical access for a highspeed CMOS camera and image intensifier to capture OH* images.
Technical Paper

Distance Cues and Fields of View in Rear Vision Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0947
The effects of image size on perceived distance have been of concern for convex rearview mirrors as well as camera-based rear vision systems. We suggest that the importance of image size is limited to cases-such as current rearview mirrors-in which the field of view is small. With larger, richer fields of view it is likely that other distance cues will dominate image size, thereby substantially diminishing the concern that distortions of size will result in distortions of distance perception. We report results from an experiment performed in a driving simulator, with static simulated rearward images, in which subjects were asked to make judgments about the distance to a rearward vehicle. The images showed a field of view substantially wider than provided by any of the individual rearview mirrors in current systems. The field of view was 38 degrees wide and was presented on displays that were either 16.7 or 8.5 degrees wide, thus minifying images by factors of 0.44 or 0.22.
Technical Paper

Distance Perception in Camera-Based Rear Vision Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0012
The importance of eye-to-display distance for distance perception in rear vision may depend on the type of display. At least in terms of its influence on the effective magnification of images, eye-to-display distance is almost irrelevant for flat rearview mirrors, but it is important for convex rearview mirrors and for other displays, such as video displays, that create images closer to the driver than the actual objects of interest. In the experiment we report here, we investigate the influence of eye-to-display distance on distance perception with both flat rearview mirrors and camera-based video displays. The results indicate that a simple model of distance perception based on the visual angles of images is not very successful. Visual angles may be important, but it appears that relationships between images of distant objects and the frames of the displays are also important. Further work is needed to fully understand how drivers might judge distance in camera-based displays.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload for Rear-Vision Systems With Single Versus Multiple Display Locations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0445
Advances in camera and display technology have increased interest in using camera-based systems for all rear-vision functions. The flexibility of camera-based systems is unprecedented, and raises the possibility of providing drivers with fields of view that are very different from, and potentially much better than, those of conventional rearview mirrors. Current fields of view are based on a combination of driver needs and the practical constraints of mirror systems. In order to make the best use of the greater flexibility offered by cameras, a reassessment of drivers' needs for rear vision is needed. A full reassessment will require consideration of many factors. This paper offers a preliminary analysis of one of those factors: the visual workload involved in using rear-vision systems with single versus multiple displays.
Technical Paper

Driving with HID Headlamps: A Review of Research Findings

2003-03-03
2003-01-0295
High-intensity discharge (HID) headlamps have several advantages over tungsten-halogen headlamps, including greater light efficiency (lumens per watt) and longer life. However, from the safety point of view, the primary attraction of HID headlamps is that, because they produce more total light, they have the potential to provide more useful illumination to the driver. At the same time, there are concerns with the effects of HID illumination on perception of the colors of important objects and glare to oncoming traffic. This paper reviews research evidence that we have accumulated over the past 14 years concerning the potential benefits and drawbacks associated with the use of HID headlighting. We conclude that the evidence strongly supports the use of well-designed HID headlamps.
Technical Paper

Efficient Engine Models Using Recursive Formulation of Multibody Dynamics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1594
Engine models with fully coupled dynamic effects of the engine components can be constructed through the use of commercial multibody dynamics codes, such as ADAMS and DADS. These commercial codes provide a modeling platform for very general mechanical systems and the time and effort required to learn how to use them may preclude their use for some engine designers. In this paper, we review an alternative and specialized modeling platform that functions as a template for engine design. Relative to commercial codes, this engine design template employs a recursive formulation of multibody dynamics, and thus it leads directly to the minimum number of equations of motion describing the dynamic response of the engine by a priori satisfaction of kinematic constraints. This is achieved by employing relative coordinates in lieu of the absolute coordinates adopted in commercial multibody dynamics codes. This engine modeling tool requires only minimal information for the input data.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3376
The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms of Sandwich Specimens With Epoxy Foam Cores Under Bending Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0327
Sandwich specimens with DP590 steel face sheets and structural epoxy foam cores are investigated under three-point bending conditions. Experimental results indicate that the maximum loads correspond to extensive cracking in the foam cores. Finite element simulations of the bending tests are also performed to understand the failure mechanisms of the epoxy foams. In these simulations, the plastic behavior of the steel face sheets is modeled by the Mises yield criterion with consideration of plastic strain hardening. A pressure sensitive yield criterion is used to model the plastic behavior of the epoxy foam cores. The epoxy foams are idealized to follow an elastic perfectly plastic behavior. The simulation results indicate that the load-displacement responses of some sandwich specimens agree with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis for Automotive Body Structure Design - Part 3: Crashworthiness Analysis Using Beam Elements

2004-03-08
2004-01-1660
We have proposed First Order Analysis (FOA) as a method, which the engineering designers themselves can use easily in an initial design stage. In this paper, we focus on the crashworthiness, and present the method to predict the collapse behavior of the frame member. This method is divided into two parts. Those are (1) collapse analysis under loading conditions of combined axial force and bending moment to the cantilever, and (2) collapse analysis of structural member considering the previously obtained moment - rotation angle relationship using the beam element. In comparison with the results according to the detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model, effectiveness and validity of this method are presented.
Technical Paper

Framing Effects on Distance Perception in Rear-Vision Displays

2003-03-03
2003-01-0298
The increasing availability of camera-based displays for indirect vision in vehicles is providing new opportunities to supplement drivers' direct views of the roadway and surrounding traffic, and is also raising new issues about how drivers perceive the positions and movements of surrounding vehicles. We recently reported evidence that drivers' perception of the distance to rearward vehicles seen in camera-based displays is affected not only by the visual angles subtended by the images of those vehicles, but also by the sizes of those images relative to the sizes of the displays within which they are seen (an influence that we have referred to as a framing effect). There was also evidence for a similar, but weaker, effect with rearview mirrors.
Technical Paper

High-Beam and Low-Beam Headlighting Patterns in the U.S. and Europe at the Turn of the Millennium

2002-03-04
2002-01-0262
This study was designed to provide photometric information about current U.S. and European high- and low-beam headlamps. The sample included 20 headlamps manufactured for use on the 20 best-selling passenger vehicles for model year 2000 in the U.S., and 20 headlamps manufactured for use on the 20 best-selling passenger vehicles for model year 2000 in Europe. The vehicles sampled represent 49% and 47%, respectively, of all vehicles sold in the U.S. and in Europe. The lamps were purchased directly from vehicle dealerships. The photometric information for each lamp was weighted by the sales figures for the corresponding vehicle. The results are presented both in tabular form for the 25th-percentile, the median (50th-percentile), and the 75th-percentile luminous intensities, as well as in graphical form (for the median luminous intensities), both for high- and low-beam headlamps (from 45° left to 45° right, and from 5° down to 7° up).
Technical Paper

Infrared Night Vision Systems and Driver Needs

2003-03-03
2003-01-0293
Night vision enhancement systems (NVES), which use infrared (IR) cameras, are designed to supplement the visibility provided by standard headlamps. There are two main NVES systems: active, near infrared (NIR) systems, which require an IR source but give a complete picture of the scene in front of the driver, and passive, far infrared (FIR) systems, which do not need an IR source but only enhance relatively warm objects (such as people and animals). There are three main display alternatives: a head-up display (HUD) superimposed on the direct view of the road, a HUD just above the dashboard but separated from the direct view, and a conventional display somewhere in the dashboard. This paper analyzes what a NVES should do to improve night visibility based on night crash statistics, driver vision and visibility conditions in night driving, driver tasks and behavior, and the options offered by various technological approaches. Potential problems with using NVES are also discussed.
X