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Technical Paper

A Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Analyzing Systems of Beams and Plates in the Mid-Frequency Range

A hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) formulation has been developed in the past for computing the mid-frequency vibration of systems that contain one type of energy. The hybrid FEA is based on characterizing as long members in a system all the members that contain a large number of wavelengths within their dimension. All the remaining members are considered as short. The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is employed for modeling the behavior of the long members, while the conventional FEA method is utilized for modeling the short members. In this paper the hybrid FEA formulation is extended to plate structures that are spot-welded to a frame comprised by tubular members. The new formulation is validated by comparing the hybrid FEA solution to results produced by very dense conventional FEA models in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Computing Structure-Borne Vibration in a Body-In-White

A new development in the area of the hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) is presented. The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with energy FEA (EFEA) for analysis of systems that contain both flexible and stiff members, and is suitable for mid-frequency computations. A formulation for analyzing flexible plates spot-welded to stiff beams when the excitation is applied on the stiff members is developed. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping elements are introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones.
Technical Paper

A Research Design to Collect Data for a Second Generation Eyellipse

Current automotive design practices related to driver visibility are based on static laboratory studies of mostly straight ahead viewing that were conducted by Meldrum and others beginning in 1962. These individual studies have never been replicated either in the lab or in actual driving situations to determine the validity of their procedures. After a thorough review of the literature related to driver eye location and a statistical analysis of previous static eye location data, an experimental design is proposed to determine dynamic eye location distribution characteristics. This design will provide information on: (a) the relationship of static anthropometric measurements to dynamic eye location; (b) the difference between dynamic on-the-road eye location versus static in-the-lab eye location distributions: (c) the effect of different types of vehicle seating package parameters on eye location; and, (d) a validation of previous static eye location studies.
Technical Paper

Accounting for Manufacturing Variability in Interior Noise Computations

A formulation that accounts for manufacturing variability in the analysis of structural/acoustic systems is presented. The methodology incorporates the concept of fast probability integration with finite element (FEA) and boundary element analysis (BEA) for producing the probabilistic acoustic response of a structural/acoustic system. The advanced mean value method is used for integrating the system probability density function. FEA and BEA are combined for producing the acoustic response that constitutes the performance function. The probabilistic acoustic response is calculated in terms of a cumulative distribution function. The new methodology is used to illustrate the difference between the results from a probabilistic analysis that accounts for manufacturing uncertainty, and an equivalent deterministic simulation through applications. The probabilistic computations are validated by comparison to Monte Carlo simulations.
Technical Paper

Application of a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Analyzing the Structure-Borne Noise in a Body-In-White

A hybrid finite element formulation for analyzing flexible plates connected to stiff frame was developed. The excitation was considered to be applied on the stiff members. Conventional FEA models were employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping elements were introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones. Once the vibration of the stiff members and the amount of power dissipated at the damping elements was identified, an EFEA analysis was performed in order to determine the amount of vibrational energy in the flexible members. The hybrid FEA is applied to a Body-In-White (BIW). The results of the hybrid FEA are compared with results from very dense conventional finite element analyses.
Technical Paper

Driving with HID Headlamps: A Review of Research Findings

High-intensity discharge (HID) headlamps have several advantages over tungsten-halogen headlamps, including greater light efficiency (lumens per watt) and longer life. However, from the safety point of view, the primary attraction of HID headlamps is that, because they produce more total light, they have the potential to provide more useful illumination to the driver. At the same time, there are concerns with the effects of HID illumination on perception of the colors of important objects and glare to oncoming traffic. This paper reviews research evidence that we have accumulated over the past 14 years concerning the potential benefits and drawbacks associated with the use of HID headlighting. We conclude that the evidence strongly supports the use of well-designed HID headlamps.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Technical Paper

Effects of Processing Time on Strengths and Failure Modes of Dissimilar 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

In this investigation, dissimilar 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 spot friction welds were first made under different processing conditions. The spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens were tested under quasi-static loading conditions. The optimal processing times to maximize the failure loads of the 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 welds under lap-shear loading conditions are identified. The maximum failure load of the 7075/5754 welds is about 40% larger than that of the 5754/7075 welds. Optical micrographs of both types of spot friction welds made at different processing times before and after failure are examined. The micrographs show different weld geometries and different failure modes of spot friction welds made at different processing times. The failure modes of the 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 spot friction welds appear to be quite complex and strongly depend on the geometry and the strength of the interfacial surface between the two deformed sheet materials.
Technical Paper

Failure of Laser Welds in Aluminum Sheets

In this paper, the formability of AA5754 aluminum laser-welded blanks produced by Nd:YAG laser welding is investigated under biaxial straining conditions. The mechanical behavior of the laser-welded blanks is first examined by uniaxial tensile tests conducted with the weld line perpendicular to the tensile axis. Shear failure in the weld metal is observed in the experiments. Finite element simulations under generalized plane strain conditions are then conducted in order to further understand the effects of weld geometry and strength on the shear failure and formability of these welded blanks. The strain histories of the material elements in the weld metal obtained from finite element computations are finally used in a theoretical failure analysis based on the material imperfection approach to predict the failure strains for the laser-welded blanks under biaxial straining conditions.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Behaviors of Aluminum 5754-O Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

Fatigue behaviors of aluminum 5754-O spot friction welds made by a concave tool in lap-shear specimens are investigated based on experimental observations and a fatigue life estimation model. Optical micrographs of the welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are examined. The micrographs indicate that the failure modes of the 5754 spot friction welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are quite different. The dominant kinked fatigue cracks for the final failures of the welds under cyclic loading conditions are identified. Based on the experimental observations of the paths of the dominant kinked fatigue cracks, a fatigue life estimation model based on the stress intensity factor solutions for finite kinked cracks is adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the welds.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failure of Rollers in Crankshaft Fillet Rolling

In this paper, the fatigue failure of the primary roller used in a crankshaft fillet rolling process is investigated by a failure analysis and a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first discussed to introduce the important parameters that influence the fatigue life of the primary roller. The cross sections of failed primary rollers are then examined by an optical microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to understand the microscopic characteristics of the fatigue failure process. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is employed to qualitatively investigate the influences of the contact geometry on the contact pressure distribution and the Mises stress distribution near the contact area. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are then estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory.
Technical Paper

First Order Analysis for Automotive Body Structure Design - Part 3: Crashworthiness Analysis Using Beam Elements

We have proposed First Order Analysis (FOA) as a method, which the engineering designers themselves can use easily in an initial design stage. In this paper, we focus on the crashworthiness, and present the method to predict the collapse behavior of the frame member. This method is divided into two parts. Those are (1) collapse analysis under loading conditions of combined axial force and bending moment to the cantilever, and (2) collapse analysis of structural member considering the previously obtained moment - rotation angle relationship using the beam element. In comparison with the results according to the detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model, effectiveness and validity of this method are presented.
Technical Paper

Inhomogeneities in HCCI Combustion: An Imaging Study

A four-valve-pentroof, direct-injection, optical engine fueled with n-heptane has been operated at four different steady-state HCCI operating conditions including 10% and 65% residuals, both at low and high swirl conditions. Both, planar toluene LIF and volume chemiluminescence show large scale inhomogeneity in the ensemble averaged images. The interpretation of the toluene-tracer LIF signals (when premixed with the fresh-air charge) as a marker for reaction homogeneity is discussed. A binarization scheme and a statistical analysis of the LIF images were applied to the per-cycle planar-LIF images revealing inhomogeneities both from cycle-to-cycle and within the regions of individual cycles that track with the average heat release rate. Comparison of these two homogeneity metrics between the four operating conditions reveals weak but discernable differences.
Technical Paper

Integration of Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods for Simulating the Noise Radiated From a Flexible Panel Subjected to Boundary Layer Excitation

In this paper an algorithm is developed for combining finite element analysis and boundary element techniques in order to compute the noise radiated from a panel subjected to boundary layer loading. The excitation is presented in terms of the auto and cross power spectral densities of the fluctuating wall pressure. The structural finite element model for the panel is divided into a number of sub-panels. A uniform fluctuating pressure is applied as excitation on each sub-panel separately. The corresponding vibration is computed, and is utilized as excitation for an acoustic boundary element analysis. The acoustic response is computed at any data recovery point of interest. The relationships between the acoustic response and the pressure excitation applied at each particular sub-panel constitute a set of transfer functions.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Effort Perception in Lifting and Reaching Tasks

Although biomechanics models can predict the stress on the musculoskeletal system, they cannot predict how the muscle load associated with exertion is perceived. The short-term goal of the present study was to model the perception of effort in lifting and reaching tasks. The long-term goal is to determine the correlation between objective and subjective measures of effort and use this information to predict fatigue or the risk of injury. Lifting and reaching tasks were performed in seated and standing situations. A cylindrical object and a box were moved with one hand and two hands, respectively, from a home location to shelves distributed in the space around the subject. The shoulder and torso effort required to perform these tasks were rated on a ten point visual analog scale.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Loads under Combined Mode Loading Conditions

Failure loads of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain maximum loads of spot welds under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different loading rates. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot welds before and after failure were obtained to understand the failure processes under various loading rates and different combinations of loads. The experimental results indicate that under nearly pure opening loads, the failure occurs along the nugget circumferential boundary. Under combined opening and shear loading conditions, the failure starts from the tensile side of the base metal near the nugget in a necking/shear failure mode. The effects of sheet thickness and combined load on the load carrying behavior of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions based on the experimental results.