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Technical Paper

A Concept of IVHS in Commercial Vehicle Operation: The HELP/Crescent Program

1991-10-01
912776
The HELP Program and Crescent Demonstration Project is a bi-national multi-jurisdictional cooperative research and demonstration project involving the public and private sectors in an application of advancing technologies in the creation of an integrated heavy vehicle management system with applications to both highway and vehicle systems. This initiative is a leading example of the Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) in commercial vehicle operations (CVO). The selected technologies are being integrated into a heavy vehicle management system. These technologies include: (1) automatic vehicle identification (AVI), (2) weigh-in-motion (WIM), (3) automatic vehicle classification (AVC), (4) data communication networks and systems integration. The program, initiated approximately eight years ago, consists of three phases which include assessing the feasibility of the concept, technical studies involving laboratory and field tests, and, lastly, the demonstration phase.
Technical Paper

Conversion of a 1999 Silverado to Dedicated E85 with Emphasis on Cold Start and Cold Driveability

2000-03-06
2000-01-0590
The University of Texas Ethanol Vehicle Challenge team focused upon cold start/driveability, fuel economy, and emissions reduction for our 1999 Ethanol Vehicle Challenge entry. We replaced or coated all fuel system components that were not ethanol compatible. We used the stock PCM for all control functions except control of a novel cold-start system our team designed. The primary modifications for improved emissions control involved ceramic coating of the exhaust manifolds, use of close-coupled ethanol-specific catalysts, increased EGR for the operating conditions of the five longest cruises on the FTP, and our cold-start system that eliminates the need to overfuel the engine at the beginning of the FTP. This EGR control scheme should also benefit urban fuel economy. Additionally, we eliminated EGR at high load to improve power density.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Flywheel Battery for a Transit Bus

1999-03-01
1999-01-1159
The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics (UT-CEM) has designed and tested a flywheel energy storage system conventionally referred to as a flywheel battery (FWB) for power averaging on a hybrid electric transit bus. The system incorporates a high speed (40,000 rpm) 150 kW permanent magnet motor generator with magnetic bearings to levitate a 2 kWh composite flywheel. This paper summarizes: design goals, required operating parameters, system design, analysis completed prior to fabrication, and initial performance testing completed in the laboratory. The paper includes information on the motor/generator, power electronics, magnetic bearing sensors and controls, and FWB subsystems (including containment). Finally, recommendations for continued testing are made along with recommendations for improvements to the existing design.
Technical Paper

Development of the Texas Drayage Truck Cycle and Its Use to Determine the Effects of Low Rolling Resistance Tires on the NOX Emissions and Fuel Economy

2009-04-20
2009-01-0943
Trucks operating in inter-modal (drayage) operation in and around port and rail terminals, are responsible for a large proportion of the emissions of NOX, which are problematic for the air quality of the Houston and Dallas/Ft. Worth metro areas. A standard test cycle, called the Texas Dray Truck Cycle, was developed to represent the operation of heavy-duty diesel trucks in dray operations. The test cycle reflects the substantial time spent at idle (~45%) and the high intensity of the on-road portions. This test cycle was then used in the SAE J1321 test protocol to evaluate the effect on fuel consumption and NOX emissions of retrofitting dray trucks with light-weight, low-rolling resistance wide-single tires. In on-track testing, a reduction in fuel consumption of 8.7% was seen, and NOX emissions were reduced by 3.8% with the wide single tires compared to the conventional tires.
Technical Paper

Effect of Computational Delay on the Performance of a Hybrid Adaptive Cruise Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0800
This paper investigates the effect of real-time control system computational delay on the performance of a hybrid adaptive cruise control (ACC) system during braking/coasting scenarios. A hierarchical hybrid ACC system with a finite state machine (FSM) at the high-rank and a nonlinear sliding mode controller (SMC) at the low-rank is designed based on a vehicle dynamics model with a brake-by-wire platform. From simulations, parametric studies are used to evaluate the effect of the bounded random computational delay on the system performance in terms of tracking errors and control effort. The effect of the computational delay location within the control system hierarchy is also evaluated. The system performance generally becomes worse as the upper boundary of the computational delay increases while the effect of the computational delay located at the high-rank controller is more pronounced.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-cylinder Flow on Fuel Concentration at the Spark Plug, Engine Performance and Emissions in a DISI Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0831
A fiber optic instrumented spark plug was used to make time-resolved measurements of the fuel vapor concentration history near the spark gap in a four-valve DISI engine. Four different bulk flow were investigated. Several early and late injection timings were examined. The fuel concentration at the spark gap was correlated with IMEP. Emissions of CO, HCs, and NOx were related to the type of bulk flow. For both early and late injection the CoVs of fuel concentration were generally lowest for the weakest bulk flow which resulted in a stable stratification. Strong bulk flows convected the inhomogeneities through the measurement area near the spark plug resulting in both large intracycle and cycle-to-cycle variation in equivalence ratio at the time of ignition.
Technical Paper

Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor – Mechanisms and Application in a Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0647
An electronic particulate matter sensor (EPMS) developed at the University of Texas was used to characterize exhaust gases from a single-cylinder diesel engine and a light-duty diesel vehicle. Measurements were made during transient tip-in events with multiple sensor configurations in the single-cylinder engine. The sensor was operated in two modes: one with the electric field energized, and the other with no electric field present. In each mode, different characteristic signals were produced in response to a tip-in event, highlighting the two primary mechanisms of sensor operation. The sensor responded to both the natural charge of the particulate matter (PM) emitted from the engine, and was also found to create a signal by charging neutral particles. The characteristics of the two mechanisms of operation are discussed as well as their implications on the placement and operation of the sensor.
Technical Paper

Formulas for Estimating Vehicle Critical Speed From Yaw Marks - A Review

1997-02-24
971147
This paper provides an exposition of the basic and some refined inertial critical speed estimation formulas. A literature review of existing inertial formulas for estimating critical cornering speed were identified for the ultimate purpose of developing a useful, compact, and more accurate speed estimation formula. Background information is presented covering the general definitions and utility of critical speed formulas. First, as a point of reference, the basic critical speed formulas are derived. Included is a list of the key assumptions on which the basic formulas are based. It is shown that the basic formulas are founded on the fundamental principles of physics and engineering mechanics; namely, Newton's Second Law and centrifugal force.
Technical Paper

Fractal Analysis of Turbulent Premixed Flame Images from SI Engines

1992-10-01
922242
Researchers in the field of turbulent combustion have found fractal geometry to be a useful tool for describing and quantifying the nature of turbulent flames. This paper describes and compares several techniques for the fractal analysis of two dimensional (2-D) turbulent flame images. Four methods of fractal analysis were evaluated: the Area Method, the Box Method, the Caliper Method, and the Area-Caliper Method. These techniques were first applied to a computer-generated fractal image having a known fractal dimension and known cut-offs. It was found that a “window” effect can cause the outer cut-off to be underestimated. The Caliper Method was found to suffer from noise arising from the statistical nature of the analysis. The Area-Caliper Method was found to be superior to the other methods. The techniques were applied to two types of flame images obtained in a spark ignition engine: Mie scattering from particles seeded in the flow and laser induced fluorescence of OH.
Technical Paper

Further Development of an On-Board Distillation System for Generating a Highly Volatile Cold-Start Fuel

2005-04-11
2005-01-0233
The On-Board Distillation System (OBDS) extracts, from gasoline, a highly volatile crank fuel that enables simultaneous reduction of start-up fuel enrichment and significant ignition timing retard during cold-starting. In a previous paper we reported reductions in catalyst light-off time of >50% and THC emissions reductions >50% over Phase I of the FTP drive cycle. The research presented herein is a further development of the OBDS concept. For this work, OBDS was improved to yield higher-quality start-up fuel. The PCM calibration was changed as well, in order to improve the response to intake manifold pressure transients. The test vehicle was tested over the 3-phase FTP, with exhaust gases speciated to determine NMOG and exhaust toxics emissions. Also, the effectiveness of OBDS at generating a suitable starting fuel from a high driveability index test gasoline was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Implementing Automated Multi-Level Substructuring In Nastran Vibroacoustic Analysis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1405
Automated Multi-Level Substructuring is a new method for analyzing vibrations of complex structures. Finite element models are automatically divided into thousands of substructures, and response is represented in terms of substructure modes. This method reduces the analysis burden greatly by reducing the computation that must be done, enabling workstations and multiprocessor computing platforms to be used, and reducing disk space requirements and job turnaround time. This paper explains how this method has been implemented for production use in the automotive industry, in conjunction with Nastran software.
Technical Paper

Initial Study of Railplugs as an Aid for Cold Starting of Diesels

1994-02-01
940108
The results of continuing investigations of a new type of ignitor, the railplug, are reported. Previous studies have shown that railplugs can produce a high velocity jet of plasma. Additionally, railplugs have the potential of assuring ignition under adverse conditions, such as cold start of an IDI diesel engine, because the railplug plasma can force ignition in the combustion chamber rather than relying on autoignition under cold start conditions. In this paper, engine data are presented to demonstrate the improved cold starting capability obtainable with railplugs. Data acquired using a railplug are compared to results obtained using no assist and using glow plugs. The engine used for this investigation will not start without glow plugs (or some starting aid) at temperatures below O°C, and the manufacturer's specification of the cold start limit for this engine using glow plugs is -24°C. Railplugs are able to initiate combustion at -29°C in one to two seconds with no preheating.
Technical Paper

Intake and ECM Submodel Improvements for Dynamic SI Engine Models: Examination of Tip-In/Tip-Out

1991-02-01
910074
Improved submodels for use in a dynamic engine/vehicle model have been developed and the resulting code has been used to analyze the tip-in, tip-out behavior of a computer-controlled port fuel injected SI engine. This code consists of four submodels. The intake simulation submodel is similar to prior intake models, but some refinements have been made to the fuel flow model to more properly simulate a timed port injection system, and it is believed that these refinements may be of general interest. A general purpose engine simulation code has been used as a subroutine for the cycle simulation submodel. A conventional vehicle simulation submodel is also included in the model formulation. Perhaps most importantly, a submodel has been developed that explicitly simulates the response of the on-board computer (ECM) control system.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Estimation of System Parameters for Active Vehicle Suspension Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-0729
Active control of vehicle suspension systems typically relies on linear, time-invariant, lumped-parameter dynamic models. While these models are convenient, nominally accurate, and tractable due to the abundance of linear control techniques, they neglect potentially significant nonlinearities and time-varying dynamics present in real suspension systems. One approach to improving the effectiveness of such linear control applications is to introduce time and spatially-dependent coefficients, making the model adaptable to parameter variations and unmodeled dynamics. In this paper, the authors demonstrate an intelligent parameter estimation approach, using structured artificial neural networks, to continually adapt the lumped parameters of a linear, quarter-car suspension model. Results are presented for simulated and experimental quarter-vehicle suspension system data, and clearly demonstrate the viability of this approach.
Technical Paper

Liquid Film Evaporation Off the Piston of a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1204
An optical access engine was used to image the liquid film evaporation off the piston of a simulated direct injected gasoline engine. A directional injector probe was used to inject liquid fuel (gasoline, i-octane and n-pentane) directly onto the piston of an engine primarily fueled on propane. The engine was run at idle conditions (750 RPM and closed throttle) and at the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (1500 RPM and 262 kPa BMEP). Mie scattering images show the liquid exiting the injector probe as a stream and directly impacting the piston top. Schlieren imaging was used to show the fuel vaporizing off the piston top late in the expansion stroke and during the exhaust stroke. Previous emissions tests showed that the presence of liquid fuel on in-cylinder surfaces increases engine-out hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

Load Leveling Device Selection for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1998-02-01
981130
An important component in many hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) concepts is the load leveling device (LLD). The best type of LLD for HEVs is under debate. This paper identifies the important concept selection criteria for the three leading types of LLDs being considered for use in HEVs. The performance of electrochemical batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels is compared using these criteria. The concept selection methodology indicates that at the present time flywheels show the most promise for development for use in a hybrid electric vehicle. The use of this type of selection methodology is a powerful tool in identifying concepts worthy of development as well as determining performance criteria in need of improvement within each concept.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Local In-Cylinder Fuel Concentration Fluctuations in a Firing SI Engine

1997-05-01
971644
The cycle-resolved fuel concentration near the spark plug in a firing SI engine has been measured using an infrared fiber optic instrumented spark plug probe. The probe can measure in-cylinder concentrations of hydrocarbons in the pre-combustion regions of the engine cycle and give qualitative results for unburned hydrocarbons in the post-combustion regions. The device consists of a spark plug body that has been modified to accept a pair of sapphire optical fibers in addition to a spark electrode. Radiation from an infrared source is coupled into one fiber and reflected from a minor on the spark plug ground electrode to the other fiber which carries the signal to a detector and data acquisition system. The probe measures the attenuation of the infrared radiation transmitted through a region in the vicinity of the spark gap. The attenuation results from the absorption of radiation by the fuel. The measurements were made in a CFR engine at 600 rpm using propane fuel.
Technical Paper

Performance of Anti-Lock Braking System Equipped Passenger Vehicles - Part I: Braking as a Function of Brake Pedal Application Force

2002-03-04
2002-01-0304
This paper presents the results of original research conducted to evaluate the braking characteristics of passenger vehicles equipped with anti-lock braking systems (ABS) as a function of brake-pedal application force. The conditions studied in this paper are for braking on a dry, level roadway without any steering input. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of brake-pedal application force on the braking systems of common vehicles currently in-use. Comparisons are made between ABS and locked-wheel braking for each vehicle. The subject of this paper is part of the general topic of passenger vehicle dynamics and stability. Knowledge of how a vehicle performs under a variety of braking conditions is important for a variety of applications such as 1) intelligent vehicle highway systems, 2) vehicle stability and control, 3) vehicle dynamics, and 4) accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Performance of Anti-Lock Braking System Equipped Passenger Vehicles - Part III: Braking as a Function of Tire Inflation Pressure

2002-03-04
2002-01-0306
This paper presents the results of original research conducted to evaluate the braking characteristics of passenger vehicles equipped with anti-lock braking systems (ABS) as a function of tire inflation pressure. The conditions studied in this paper are for braking on a dry, level roadway without any steering input. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of tire inflation pressure on the braking systems of common vehicles currently in-use. Comparisons are made between ABS and locked-wheel braking for each vehicle. The subject of this paper is part of the general topic of passenger vehicle dynamics and stability. Knowledge of how a vehicle performs under a variety of braking conditions is important for a variety of applications such as 1) intelligent vehicle highway systems, 2) vehicle stability and control, 3) vehicle dynamics, and 4) accident reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Performance of anti-lock Braking System Equipped Passenger Vehicles - Part II: Braking as a Function of Initial Vehicle Speed in Braking Maneuver

2002-03-04
2002-01-0307
This paper presents the results of original research conducted to evaluate the braking characteristics of passenger vehicles equipped with anti-lock braking systems (ABS) as a function of vehicle speed at the beginning of a braking maneuver. The conditions studied in this paper are for braking on a dry, level roadway without any steering input. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of vehicle speed on the braking systems of common vehicles currently in-use. Comparisons are made between ABS and locked-wheel braking for each vehicle. The subject of this paper is part of the general topic of passenger vehicle dynamics and stability. Knowledge of how a vehicle performs under a variety of braking conditions is important for a variety of applications such as 1) intelligent vehicle highway systems, 2) vehicle stability and control, 3) vehicle dynamics, and 4) accident reconstruction.
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