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Technical Paper

A Full-Cycle Multi-Zone Quasi-Dimensional Direct Injection Diesel Engine Model Based on a Conceptual Model Developed from Imaging Experiments

A quasi-dimensional model for a direct injection diesel engine was developed based on experiments at Sandia National Laboratory. The Sandia researchers obtained images describing diesel spray evolution, spray mixing, premixed combustion, mixing controlled combustion, soot formation, and NOx formation. Dec [1] combined all of the available images to develop a conceptual diesel combustion model to describe diesel combustion from the start of injection up to the quasi-steady form of the jet. The end of injection behavior was left undescribed in this conceptual model because no clear image was available due to the chaotic behavior of diesel combustion. A conceptual end-of-injection diesel combustion behavior model was developed to capture diesel combustion throughout its life span. The compression, expansion, and gas exchange stages are modeled via zero-dimensional single zone calculations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for DISI Combustion Systems

This paper presents results from a comprehensive experimental study of high-pressure pressure-swirl gasoline injectors tested under a range of simulated operating conditions. This study encompassed photographic analysis of single spray sequences and simultaneous measurement of axial velocity, radial velocity and diameter at point locations using the phase-doppler technique. The combination of these measurement techniques permitted an insight into the fluid dynamics of the injected spray and its development with time. Five primary stages in the spray-history were identified and numerated with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Measurements of Pre-Combustion Fuel Concentration Near the Spark Plug in a Gasoline SI Engine

An infrared fiber optic instrumented spark plug probe has been used to measure the fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark gap in a port injected gasoline fueled SI engine. The probe measured the fuel concentration spatially averaged over a distance of 6.3 mm near the spark plug for consecutive firing cycles. The crank angle resolution of the measurements was 2.5 degrees, for a temporal resolution of between 0.9 and 0.3 ms depending on the engine speed. Quantitative measurements of the fuel concentration in the pre-ignition regions of the engine cycle were obtained. Qualitative results are reported for unburned hydrocarbons in the post-combustion regions. The measurements were made in a single cylinder research engine over a range of speed, load, and stoichiometric conditions. Strong mixture inhomogeneities were measured during the intake stroke and the inhomogeneities decreased through the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Composition on Mixture Formation in a Firing Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine: An Experimental Study using Mie-Scattering and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) Techniques

Two-dimensional Mie-scattering and laser-induced fluorescence techniques were applied to investigate the effects of fuel composition on mixture formation within a firing direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. A comparison was made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions resulting from the use of a typical multi-component gasoline (European specification premium-grade unleaded), a single-component research fuel (iso-octane), and a three-component research fuel (iso-pentane, iso-octane and n-nonane). Studies were performed at three different injection timings under cold and part-warm conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition affects both the initial spray formation and the subsequent mixture formation process. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the mixing process to the effects of fuel volatility was shown to depend on injection timing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor – Mechanisms and Application in a Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

An electronic particulate matter sensor (EPMS) developed at the University of Texas was used to characterize exhaust gases from a single-cylinder diesel engine and a light-duty diesel vehicle. Measurements were made during transient tip-in events with multiple sensor configurations in the single-cylinder engine. The sensor was operated in two modes: one with the electric field energized, and the other with no electric field present. In each mode, different characteristic signals were produced in response to a tip-in event, highlighting the two primary mechanisms of sensor operation. The sensor responded to both the natural charge of the particulate matter (PM) emitted from the engine, and was also found to create a signal by charging neutral particles. The characteristics of the two mechanisms of operation are discussed as well as their implications on the placement and operation of the sensor.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Sensor for Crank Angle Resolved Measurements of Burned Gas Residual Fraction in the Cylinder of an SI Engine

A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor was developed to measure the crank angle resolved residual fraction of burned gas retained in the cylinder of a four-stroke SI engine. The sensor detected the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The residual fraction remaining in the cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder CFR spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located in one of two spark plug holes of the CFR engine. A pressure-transducer-type spark plug was used to record the cylinder pressure and initiate the spark. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 540 μs (equivalent to 2.3 crank angle degrees) and the spatial resolution was 6 mm. Measurements were made during the intake and compression stroke for several intake manifold pressures. The compression ratio of the engine was varied from 6.3 to 9.5.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Spray/Charge-Motion Interaction within the Cylinder of a Direct-Injected, 4-Valve, SI Engine

The mixture preparation process was investigated in a direct-injected, 4-valve, SI engine under motored conditions. The interaction between the high-pressure fuel jet and the intake air-flow was observed. Laser-sheet droplet imaging was used to visualize the in-cylinder droplet distributions, and a single-component LDV system was used to measure in-cylinder velocities. The fuel spray was visualized with the engine motored at 1500 and 750 rpm, and with the engine stopped. It was observed that the shape of the fuel spray was distorted by the in-cylinder air motion generated by the intake air flow, and that this effect became more pronounced with increasing engine speed. Velocity measurements were made at five locations on the symmetry plane of the cylinder, with the engine motored at 750 rpm. Comparison of these measurements with, and without, injection revealed that the in-cylinder charge motion was significantly altered by the injection event.
Technical Paper

Further Development of an Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor and Its Application to Diesel Engine Transients

This paper presents the latest developments in the design and performance of an electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor developed at The University of Texas at Austin (UT) and suitable, with further development, for applications in active engine control of PM emissions. The sensor detects the carbonaceous mass component of PM in the exhaust and has a time-resolution less than 20 (ms), allowing PM levels to be quantified for engine transients. Sample measurements made with the sensor in the exhaust of a single-cylinder light duty diesel engine are presented for both steady-state and transient operations: a steady-state correlation with gravimetric filter measurements is presented, and the sensor response to rapid increases in PM emission during engine transients is shown for several different tip-in (momentary increases in fuel delivery) conditions.
Technical Paper

Further Experiments on the Effects of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting on HC Emissions from Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

A recently developed in-cylinder fuel injection probe was used to deposit a small amount of liquid fuel on various surfaces within the combustion chamber of a 4-valve engine that was operating predominately on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A fast flame ionization detector (FFID) was used to examine the engine-out emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs). Injector shut-off was used to examine the rate of liquid fuel evaporation. The purpose of these experiments was to provide insights into the HC formation mechanism due to in-cylinder wall wetting. The variables investigated were the effects of engine operating conditions, coolant temperature, in-cylinder wetting location, and the amount of liquid wall wetting. The results of the steady state tests show that in-cylinder wall wetting is an important source of HC emissions both at idle and at a part load, cruise-type condition. The effects of wetting location present the same trend for idle and part load conditions.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Local In-Cylinder Fuel Concentration Fluctuations in a Firing SI Engine

The cycle-resolved fuel concentration near the spark plug in a firing SI engine has been measured using an infrared fiber optic instrumented spark plug probe. The probe can measure in-cylinder concentrations of hydrocarbons in the pre-combustion regions of the engine cycle and give qualitative results for unburned hydrocarbons in the post-combustion regions. The device consists of a spark plug body that has been modified to accept a pair of sapphire optical fibers in addition to a spark electrode. Radiation from an infrared source is coupled into one fiber and reflected from a minor on the spark plug ground electrode to the other fiber which carries the signal to a detector and data acquisition system. The probe measures the attenuation of the infrared radiation transmitted through a region in the vicinity of the spark gap. The attenuation results from the absorption of radiation by the fuel. The measurements were made in a CFR engine at 600 rpm using propane fuel.
Technical Paper

Railplug Ignition Operating Characteristics and Performance:A Review

The basic process of spark ignition in engines has changed little over the more than 100 years since its first application. The rapid evolution of several advanced engine concepts and the refinement of existing engine designs, especially applications of power boost technology, have led to a renewed interest in advanced spark ignition concepts. The increasingly large rates of in-cylinder dilution via EGR and ultra-lean operation, combined with increases in boost pressures are placing new demands on spark ignition systems. The challenge is to achieve strong and consistent ignition of the in-cylinder mixture in every cycle, to meet performance and emissions goals while maintaining or improving the durability of ignitor. The application of railplug ignition to some of these engine systems is seen as a potential alternative to conventional spark ignition systems that may lead to improved ignition performance.