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Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Fuel Economy Improvement of a Natural Gas SI Engine at the Lean Burn and the Stoichiometric Operation both with EGR under the Premise of Meeting EU6 Emission Legislation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1958
In order to further study the effects of air and EGR dilution on the fuel economy improvement of natural gas engines under the premise of meeting EU6 legislation, a comparison between stoichiometric operation with EGR and lean burn operation with and without EGR has been conducted at 1600rpm 50% and 75% load. The conversion efficiencies of the catalysts for both NOx and CH4 emissions are assumed at 90% for lean burn operation. Experiment results indicate that under the condition of meeting both NOx and CH4 predetermined engine-out emissions limits for EU6 legislation, lean operation with a small fraction of EGR dilution enables more advanced combustion phasing compared to pure lean operation, which results in much better fuel economy, thus further improvement compared to stoichiometric operation is achieved.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Engine through Miller Cycle Coupled with EGR and Water Emulsified Fuel

2016-10-17
2016-01-2187
The combustion in low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines can be characterized as large spatial and temporal scales combustion. One of the most effective measures to reduce NOx emissions is to reduce the local maximum combustion temperature. In the current study, multi-dimensional numerical simulations have been conducted to explore the potential of Miller cycle, high compression ratio coupled with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and WEF (water emulsified fuel) to improve the trade-off relationship of NOx-ISFC (indicated specific fuel consumption) in a low-speed two-stroke marine engine. The results show that the EGR ratio could be reduced combined with WEF to meet the Tier III emission regulation. The penalty on fuel consumption with EGR and WEF could be offset by Miller cycle and high geometric compression ratio.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-2D Transient Multiphase Modeling of Cold Start Processes in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2019-04-02
2019-01-0390
It’s well known that startup process of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) under subzero temperature is extremely significant because of its influence on fuel cell performance and durability. In the study, a quasi-2D numerical model is developed and dynamic equations of mass conservation, energy conservation, membrane water conservation, ice conservation, species conservation are all considered. Three different hydrogen supply modes are studied in detail: flow-through anode (FTA) mode, dead-ended anode (DEA) mode and off-gas recirculation (OR) mode. It is found that the local current density (LCD) and temperature distribution vary remarkably along flow channel in OR mode as t > 500s due to nitrogen crossover and accumulation. During the cold start operation, the DEA mode and OR mode hold more water in anode catalyst layer (ACL) which reduces the effects of hydraulic permeation, resulting in more ice formation in cathode catalyst layer (CCL) and slower temperature rising.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study on Particle Deposition and Filtration Characteristics in Wall-Flow DPF with Inhomogeneous Wall Structure Using a Two-Dimensional Microcosmic Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0995
A new two-dimensional wall-flow DPF microstructure model has been developed in this paper to investigate the particle deposition distribution in DPF channels and the deep-bed filtration process of DPF. The substrate wall of the DPF having a thickness of L is divided into several layers with a uniform thickness of Δy along the cross-wall direction, and each layer has specific porosity and pore size. The pressure drop, particle deposition distribution and the dynamic deep-bed filtration process of the DPF with inhomogeneous wall structure are studied under various space velocities. Besides, the differences on DPF’s performance brought by the inhomogeneous wall structure are discussed by comparing with a homogeneous wall structure.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study on Particle Motion in Diesel Particulate Filter Based on Microcosmic Channel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0964
As the prime after-treatment device for diesel particulate matter (PM) emission control, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) has been widely used for its high particle capture efficiency. In order to study the particle motion and deposition distributions in the DPF inlet channel, a 2-D wall flow DPF microcosmic channel model is built in this paper. The motion trajectories of particles with different sizes are investigated considering the drag force, Brownian motion, gravity and Saffman lift. The effects of the space velocity on particle motion trajectories and deposition distributions inside the inlet channel are evaluated. These results demonstrate that the particle motion trajectories are highly dependent on particle sizes and influenced by the space velocity. The effect of the Brownian motion is obvious for fine particles and suppressed when the space velocity is raised.
Technical Paper

A Solution to Fuel Vaporization Problem in a Power Nozzle

2009-04-20
2009-01-1051
A power nozzle is a fuel injection actuator in which fuel is instantly compressed and then discharged by a solenoid piston pump with nozzle. Fuel vaporization inside the power nozzles is a challenging issue. This paper presents an effective solution to the fuel vaporization problem in the power nozzle. An applied physical process, fluid boundary layer pumping (FBLP), is found in this study. FBLP can result in fuel circulation within the fuel line of the power nozzle, which on one hand brings heat out of the power nozzle, and on the other hand blocks vapor from entering the piston pump.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Investigation of the Combustion of PRF90 under the Flexible Cylinder Engine Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-1027
On-board fuel reforming offers a prospective clean combustion mode for the engines. The flexible cylinder engine strategy (FCE) is a new kind of such mode. In this paper, the combustion of the primary reference fuel of PRF90 was theoretically investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to validate the FCE mode, mainly focusing on the ignition delay time, the flame speed, and the emissions. The simulations were performed by using the CHEMKIN2.0 package to demonstrate the fuel reforming process in the flexible cylinder, the cooling effect on the reformed products, and the combustions of the mixture of the fresh fuel and the reformed products in the normal cylinders. It was found that the FCE mode decreased the ignition delay time of the fuel by about 35 crank angles at a typical engine condition.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Diesel Low Temperature Combustion through Higher Boost and EGR Control Coupled with Miller Cycle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0383
Diesel engines generally tend to produce a very low level of NOx and soot through the application of Miller Cycle, which is mainly due to the low temperature combustion (LTC) atmosphere resulting from the Miller Cycle utilization. A CFD model was established and calibrated against the experimental data for a part load operation at 3000 r/min. A designed set of Miller-LTC combustion modes were analyzed. It is found that a higher boost pressure coupled with EGR can further tap the potential of Miller-LTC cycle, improving and expanding the Miller-LTC operation condition. The simulated results indicated that the variation of Miller timings can decrease the regions of high temperatures and then improve the levels and trade-off relationship of NOx and soot. The in-cylinder peak pressure and NOx emissions were increased dramatically though the problem of insufficient intake charge was resolved by the enhanced intake pressure that is equivalent to dual-stage turbo-charging.
Technical Paper

Advanced Gasoline Engine Management Platform for Euro IV & CHN IV Emission Regulation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1704
The increasingly stringent requirements in relation to emission reduction and onboard diagnostics are pushing the Chinese automotive industry toward more innovative solutions and a rapid increase in electronic control performance. To manage the system complexity the architecture will require being well structure on hardware and software level. The paper introduces GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1). GEMS-K1 is a platform being compliant with Euro IV emission regulation for gasoline engines. The application software is developed using modeling language, the code is automatically generated from the model. The driver software has a well defined structure including microcontroller abstraction layer and ECU abstraction layer. The hardware is following design rules to be robust, 100% testable and easy to manufacture. The electronic components use the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Impact of Exhaust Turbine Redesign, for Narrow VGT Operating Range, on the Performance of Diesel Engines with Assisted Turbocharger

2019-04-02
2019-01-0326
Electrically assisted turbochargers are a promising technology for improving boost response of turbocharged engines. These systems include a turbocharger shaft mounted electric motor/generator. In the assist mode, electrical energy is applied to the turbocharger shaft via the motor function, while in the regenerative mode energy can be extracted from the shaft via the generator function, hence these systems are also referred to as regenerative electrically assisted turbochargers (REAT). REAT allows simultaneous improvement of boost response and fuel economy of boosted engines. This is achieved by optimally scheduling the electrical assist and regeneration actions. REAT also allows the exhaust turbine to operate within a narrow range of optimal vane positions relative to the unassisted variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The ability to operate within a narrow range of VGT vane positions allows an opportunity for a more optimal turbine design for a REAT system.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Abnormal Spray Behaviors of Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2016-04-05
2016-01-0848
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of injection pressures and fuel temperatures on the secondary injection spray evolution at the end of injection from a multi-hole gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector by Mie-scattering technique. The results of this paper show that the overall injection process can be classified into five stages which are injection delay stage, main injection stage, dwell stage, secondary injection stage and ligaments breakup stage respectively. Especially, the secondary injection occurs at the end of main injection, which is abnormal and undesirable spray behaviors. During the injection, big droplets and ligaments are injected through nozzle orifices at low speed. As the injection pressure increases, the phase of the secondary injection advances, and the injection duration decreases. At medium injection pressures (at 6, 8 MPa), more quantity of fuel are injected as ligaments.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Characteristic and Application Performance of Catalyzed DPFs Coated with Various Content of Precious Metal in China

2017-10-08
2017-01-2379
Recent toxicological and epidemiologic studies have shown that diesel emissions have been a significant toxic air contaminant. Catalyzed DPF (CDPF) not only significantly reduces the PM mass emissions (>90%), but also further promotes carrier self-regeneration and oxidize more harmful gaseous pollutants by the catalyst coated on the carrier. However, some ultrafine particles and potentially harmful gaseous pollutants, such as VOCs species, originally emitted in the vapor-phase at high plume temperature, may penetrate through the CDPF filter. Furthermore, the components and content of catalyst coated on the CDPF could influence the physicochemical properties and toxicity intensity of those escaping ultrafine particles and gaseous pollutants. In this work, (1) we investigated the influence of precious metal content as a variable parameter on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the small CDPF samples.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Rail Pressure Fluctuations under Two-Injection Conditions and the Control Strategy Based on ANN

2017-10-08
2017-01-2212
High-pressure common rail (HPCR) fuel injection system is the most widely used fuel system in diesel engines. However, when multiple injection strategy is used, the pressure wave fluctuation is un-avoided due to the opening and closing of the needle valve which will affect the subsequent fuel injection and combustion characteristics. In this paper, several parameters: injection pressure, injection intervals, the main injection pulse widths are investigated on a common rail fuel injection test rig with two injection pulses to explore their effect on the fuel injection rate and fuel quantity. The result showed that the longer injection interval between the pilot and main injections will lead to a rail pressure drop at the beginning of the main injection so that a smaller fuel quantity will be delivered. The main injection pulse width also influences fuel injection rate and the main fuel quantity.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Single Fuel Droplet Impact on Oil Film

2019-04-02
2019-01-0304
In order to better understand the spray impingement behavior of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, this paper used the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) test method to conduct basic research on the fuel droplet impact onto the oil film. The effects of different incident droplet Weber number, dimensionless oil film thickness and oil film viscosity on the morphology of oil film after impact were investigated. And the composition of splashing droplets after impingement was analyzed. The morphology of oil film after impact was divided into three categories: stable crown, delayed splash crown, and prompt splash crown. The stable crown has only splashing fuel droplets, the splashing droplets of delayed splash crown are consist of fuel and oil film. The splashing droplets of prompt splash crown mainly include the oil film. It is shown that the larger the Weber number of incident droplets, the larger the dimensionless crown height and diameter, the easier the oil film will splash.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Sub/Supercritical Gasoline and Iso-Octane Jets in High Temperature Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0289
Based on the temperature and pressure in the cylinder of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines under the common operating conditions, jets´ characteristics of gasoline and iso-octane at different fuel temperatures under the high ambient temperature were studied by means of high-speed photography and striation method. It is found that the supercritical gasoline jet shows the morphological collapse of jet center and the protrusion of the front surface, but the iso-octane jet doesn´t. Meanwhile, as the fuel temperature rises, the flash boiling and the interference between adjacent plumes affect the gasoline jet, and cause the center of the jet to form a high-speed and low-pressure zone, hence the air entrainment in this region contributes to the collapse of jets. The collapse and convergence of jets´ morphology are the main reasons for the change of penetration and cone angle.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation and Analysis on Aerodynamic Noise at the Engine Inlet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0686
As the intake noise is a major contributing factor to automotive passenger compartment noise levels, it has received much more attention than before. Because the plastic manifolds could induce and transmit more noise owing to their lighter weight, aerodynamic noise has become a more serious problem in plastic manifolds than in conventional aluminum-made manifolds. Due to the complexity of aerodynamic noise of the intake system, it is difficult to predict the noise precisely, especially for the part whose frequency is higher than 1000 Hz. This paper introduces a new co-simulation method to simulate the aerodynamic noise at the engine inlet. With the coupled simulation between two programs, GT-Power and Fluent, it could simulate the gas flow inside the engine intake system, under the actual running condition of engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Wall-Impinging Diesel Fuel Spray under Different Wall Temperatures

2017-10-08
2017-01-2251
The flame structure and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set to 773 K. The wall temperatures (Tw) were set to 523 K, 673 K and 773 K respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 600 bar, 1000bar and 1600bar, two ambient pressures (Pa) of 2 MPa and 4 MPa were applied. The flame development process of wall-impinging spray was measured by high-speed photography, which was utilized to quantify the flame luminosity intensity, ignition delay and flame geometrical parameters. The results reveal that, as the wall temperature increases, the flame luminosity intensity increases and the ignition delay decreases.
Technical Paper

Dilution Boundary Expansion Mechanism of SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Based on Micro Flame Ignition Strategy

2019-04-02
2019-01-0954
In decade years, Spark Ignition-Controlled Auto Ignition (SI-CAI) hybrid combustion, also called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) has shown its high-efficiency and low emissions advantages. However, high dilution causes the problem of unstable initial ignition and flame propagation, which leads to high cyclic variation of heat release and IMEP. The instability of SI-CAI hybrid combustion limits its dilution degree and its ability to improve the thermal efficiency. In order to solve instability problems and expand the dilution boundary of hybrid combustion, micro flame ignition (MFI) strategy is applied in gasoline hybrid combustion engines. Small amount of Dimethyl Ether (DME) chosen as the ignition fuel is injected into cylinder to form micro flame kernel, which can stabilize the ignition combustion process.
Journal Article

Disturbance Estimation Based Modeling Technique for Control and Prediction in Controllable Mechanical Turbo-Compounding System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0023
Modeling techniques matter a lot in many fields of engine engineering. Models are requested not only for control design but also for dynamic prediction. However, problems might be encountered during modeling process either because of the system complexity or the unaffordable modeling cost. As a result, a new modeling technique based on disturbance estimation is proposed in this paper. By employing the proposed modeling technique, models are set up in real time with the online information from input and output. The uncertainties of system dynamics are handled as internal disturbance of the system, while the perturbation from outside are taken as the external disturbance, and the combination of the two can be estimated online by a kind of active observer called extended state observer (ESO).
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