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Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray via Exciplex-Based Fluorescence Technique

To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

A 3D DNS Investigation on the Flame-Wall Interactions and Heat Loss in a Constant Volume Vessel

A direct numerical simulation of turbulent premixed flames in a constant volume vessel is conducted to understand flame-wall interactions and heat loss characteristics under the pressure rising condition. The contribution of the burnt region to the total heat flux is more significant compared to the reaction region. The velocity profiles indicate inward and outward motions. The profile of the turbulent kinetic energy is damped by the wall, and no distinct turbulence production is observed. Since the turbulence is weakened in the burnt region, the effect of near wall turbulence to the total wall heat flux is considered to be limited.
Technical Paper

A Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Extraction Method for Flow Field Analysis in SI IC Engines Based on Turbulence Scales

To adhere to stringent environmental regulations, SI (spark ignition) engines are required to achieve higher thermal efficiency. In recent years, EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) systems and lean-burn operation has been recognized as key technologies. Under such operating conditions, reducing CCV (cycle-to-cycle variation) in combustion is critical to the enhancement of overall engine performance. Flow-field CCV is one of the considerable factors affecting combustion in engines. Conventionally, in research on flow fields in SI engines, the ensemble average is used to separate the measured velocity field into a mean component and a fluctuation component, the latter of which contains a CCV component and a turbulent component. To extract the CCV of the flow field, previous studies employed spatial filter, temporal filter, and POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) methods.
Technical Paper

A DNS Study on Global and Local Flame Structures In Thin Reaction Zones

Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of methane-air turbulent premixed flame propagating in homogenous isotropic turbulence are conducted to investigate local and global flame structure in thin reaction zones. GRI-Mech 3.0 is used to represent methane-air reactions. The equivalence ratio of unburned mixture is 0.6 and 1.0. For a better understanding of the local flame structure in thin reaction zones, distributions of mass fractions of major species, heat release rate and temperature are investigated. To clarify effects of turbulence on the local and global flame structures, the statistical characteristics of flame elements are also revealed.
Technical Paper

A Design Guide for Wet Multiple Plate Clutches on Forklift Truck Transmissions Considering Strength Balance between Friction Material and Mating Plate

Wet multiple plate clutches consist of friction plates, on which a friction material is bonded, and mating plates that are plain metal plates. Since the frequency and the range of load in the field of forklift trucks vary widely and are more severe than those for passenger cars, the wet multiple plate clutches on forklift trucks are often damaged. Damaged clutches that were returned from the field typically had 3 types of symptoms: 1.Only the friction material was damaged, 2.Only the mating plates were deformed, 3.Both symptoms were observed. It was clear that the cause of these symptoms depended on the difference of the operating application and the strength criteria of each part. This showed that a design guide for wet multiple plate clutches considering the strength balance between the two parts according to the work application was required. The relevant flow chart of this design process was proposed.
Technical Paper

A Gas Sampling Study on the Formation Processes of Soot and NO in a DI Diesel Engine

The concentrations of soot, NO and the other combustion products were measured by incylinder gas sampling in a DI diesel engine. The effects of injection timing, swirl ratio, and combustion chamber geometry on the formation and emission processes of soot and NO were studied. The following results were obtained: (1) Soot is promptly formed in the flame during the early combustion period where the equivalence ratio in the flame is high over 1.0. Thereafter almost all the formed soot is swiftly burnd up by oxidation during the middle combustion period. This process mainly determines the exhaust soot concentration. (2) NO is formed in the flame during the early and middle combustion period where the flame temperature is high over 2000 K. The highest NO concentration is observed at the flame tip swept by the air swirl. Though the concentration of the formed NO decreases by dilusion it nearly constant during the later combustion period.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for the Measurement of Sauter Mean Diameter of Droplets in Unsteady Dense Sprays

A new technique is developed for the in-situ measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in non-evaporating transient dense sprays. This method analyzes the image of a shadowpicture of a spray based on the incident light extinction principle, and allows the sizing of Sauter mean diameter of whole droplets in a transient spray with any shape. In addition, this method allows the measurement of the local droplet size in a quasi-steady region of an axisymmetric spray if the conservation equations regarding mass and momentum are included in the calculation and data analysis. A calibration was carried out using glass beads as test particles: this was proved to have an accuracy of Sauter mean diameter measurement within 10%, on average. Applications of the new technique to both diesel and gasoline (EFI) sprays have been made.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Ignition Delay in Diesel Engines

To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a simple quasi-steady spray model coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions and validity of this model is assessed by a comparison with existing experimental data. The calculated results indicate that the competition between the heat absorption of fuel and the hot air entrainment determines the equivalence ratio of mixtures favorable for the ignition to occur in the shortest time.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Mixing in Transient Spray by LES (Comparison between Numerical and Experimental Results of Transient Particle Laden Jets)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the turbulent mixing in a diesel spray by large eddy simulation (LES). As the first step for the numerical simulation of diesel spray by LES, the LES of transient circular gas jets and particle laden jets were conducted. The simulation of transient circular jets in cylindrical coordinates has numerical instability near the central axis. To reduce the instability of calculation, azimuthal velocity around the central axis is calculated by the linear interpolation and filter width around the axis is modified to the radial or axial grid scale level. A transient circular gas jet was calculated by the modified code and the computational results were compared with experimental results with a Reynolds number of about 13000. The computational results of mean velocity and turbulent intensity agreed with experimental results for z/D>10. Predicted tip penetration of the jet also agreed to experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Photographic and Thermodynamic Study of Diesel Combustion in a Rapid Compression Machine

A diesel spray and flame in a quiescent atmosphere were realized without interference with combustion chamber walls in a newly constructed rapid compression machine. High speed shadow photography and pressure measurement were employed to obtain data for calculating the amount of air entrainment into the the flame and spray. From a comparison of air entrainment between the flame and spray, it turned out that when ignition delay becomes longer air entrainment into flames is promoted by the thermal expansion of multi-points ignition sources in the central region of the spray.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Structure of Diesel Sprays Using 2-D Imaging Techniques

The structure of dense sprays was investigated using 2-D imaging techniques. To investigate the mechanism of atomization, the liquid phase in a non-evaporating spray was visualized by a thin laser sheet formed by a single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser at the distance from 4 to 19 mm from the nozzle orifice with the injection pressure and the surrounding gas density as parameters. A new technique for the visualization of vapor phase in an evaporating spray, the SSI (Silicone particle Scattering Imaging) method, was proposed to investigate the structure of the vapor phase regions of the spray.
Technical Paper

A Study on Effect of Heterogeneity of Oxygen Concentration of Mixture in a Combustion Chamber on Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engine

In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel flame achieved in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) at various patterns of oxygen distribution in the chamber are investigated in order to clarify the effect of heterogeneity of oxygen distribution in diesel engines induced by EGR on the soot and NOx emissions. To make the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen in a combustion chamber, the mixtures with different oxygen concentrations are injected through the each different port located on the cylinder wall. Results indicate that the amount of oxygen entrained into the spray upstream the luminous flame region affects the NO emission from diesel flame strongly.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ignition Delay of Diesel Fuel Spray via Numerical Simulation

To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a discrete droplet spray model (DDM) coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions. Predicted results show that the fuel mixture injected at the start of injection, which travels along midway between the spray axis and the spray periphery, contributes heavily to the first ignition in a spray. The equivalence ratio and temperature of the first ignited mixture are kept nearly constant until the start of hot ignition. The temperature of the first ignited mixture is kept at a constant value of higher temperature than the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature of the mixture before the hot ignition starts. The equivalence ratio of the first ignited mixture is around 1.6 at initial gas temperatures between 750 K and 850 K.
Technical Paper

A Study on Soot Formation and Oxidation in an Unsteady Spray Flame via Laser Induced Incandescence and Scattering Techniques

Two kinds of planar soot imaging techniques, laser induced incandescence (LII) and laser induced scattering (LIS) techniques were applied simultaneously to an unsteady free spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine. An analysis of LII and LIS images yielded three kinds of qualitative images of soot concentration, size of soot particles, and number density of soot in the flame. These images revealed the fact that the soot is formed mainly in the center region of a flame resulting in an appearance of soot cloud with high number density and small particle size in this region, and then the soot size increases and the number density decreases while soot is conveyed downstream.
Technical Paper

A Study on Soot Formation in Unsteady Spray Flames via 2-D Soot Imaging

The formation and oxidation processes of soot particles in unsteady spray flames were investigated in a quiescent atmosphere using 2-D laser sheet visualization. The mid-plane of a flame was illuminated twice during a short time-interval by a laser sheet from a double-pulsed YAG laser. An image pair of the scattered light from soot particles was taken by two intensified gated cameras in succession. The velocity vectors of soot clouds at various location in the sooting region were estimated using the spatial correlation between the image pair. The results of temporal and spatial variation of velocity and scattering intensity in the evolving soot clusters made it clear that soot is mainly formed in the periphery of the flame tip where the air entrainment is less and flame temperature favors soot formation.
Technical Paper

A Two-Zone Model Analysis of Heat Release Rate in Diesel Engines

A thermodynamic two-zone model which assumes a stoichiornetric burned gas region and unburned air region is presented in an attempt to calculate more precise rate of heat release of diesel combustion. A comparison is made of the rate of heat release obtained by the two-zone model with that obtained by the conventional single-zone model. It shows around 10 % increase in the rate of heat release with the two-zone model. The effect of state equation of gas is also examined with the single-zone model and the use of a real gas law in stead of the perfect gas law is found to yield minor difference in the rate of heat release at a high boost operating condition.
Technical Paper

Active Control of Drive Motion of Four Wheel Steering Car with Neural Network

Two kinds of active control systems, using neural networks (NN), are presented for realizing optimal driving motion of four wheel steer (4WS) cars. The first system is based on the assumption that the car is simplified as a linear two wheel bycycle model, and that the friction force between tire and road surface is represented by Fiala's nonlinear model. The nonlinear relation between the slip angle of tire and the cornering force is expressed with NN. A model-following type control strategy is adopted in the first system, with both the feedforward and feedback gains for the control of the rear wheel steering angle adaptively determined with NN according to change of front wheel steering angle. The second system is based on the assumption that both the dynamical characteristics of the car and the tire friction force are nonlinear. The nonlinear dynamical characteristics of the car and the friction force are identified with NN, using the measured data of an actual car.
Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.