Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation on CuO Nanofluids as Heat Transfer Medium for Diesel Engine Cooling System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1109
CuO-water nanofluids was utilized as heat transfer medium in the cooling system of the diesel engine. By using CFD-Fluent software, for 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% mass concentration of nanofluids, 3-dimensional numerical simulation about flow and heat transfer process in the cooling system of engine was actualized. According to stochastic particle tracking in turbulent flow, for solid-liquid two phase flow discrete phase, the moving track of nanoparticles was traced. By this way, for CuO nanoparticles of different mass concentration nanofliuds in the cooling jacket of diesel engine, the results of the concentration distribution, velocity distribution, internal energy variation, resident time, total heat transfer and variation of total pressure reduction between inlet and outlet were ascertained.
Technical Paper

A Control Allocation Strategy for Electric Vehicles with In-wheel Motors and Hydraulic Brake System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1600
Distributed drive electric vehicle (EV) is driven by four independent hub motors mounted directly in wheels and retains traditional hydraulic brake system. So it can quickly produce driving/braking motor torque and large stable hydraulic braking force. In this paper a new control allocation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicle is proposed to improve vehicle's lateral stability performance. It exploits the quick response of motor torque and controllable hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic brake system. The allocation strategy consists of two sections. The first section uses an optimal allocation controller to calculate the total longitudinal force of each wheel. In the controller, a dynamic efficiency matrix is designed via local linearization to improve lateral stability control performance, as it considers the influence of tire coupling characteristics over yaw moment control in extreme situations.
Technical Paper

A Lumped Parameter Model Concerning the Amplitude-Dependent Characteristics for the Hydraulic Engine Mount with a Suspended Decoupler

2019-04-02
2019-01-0936
This paper presents a novel lumped parameter model(LPM) and its parameter identification method for the hydraulic engine mount(HEM) with a suspended decoupler. In the new model the decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness caused by being contact with the metallic cage is considered. Therefore, the decoupler membrane in the model can be taken as a spring. As a result, two parameters of the decoupler’s variable stiffness and the equivalent piston area are added. Then the finite element method is employed to analyze the suspended decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness characteristics under the contact state with the metallic cage. A piecewise polynomial is used to fit the decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness. To guarantee the symmetry of the stiffness, the polynomial only keeps the odd power coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Method of Acceleration Order Extraction for Active Engine Mount

2017-03-28
2017-01-1059
The active engine mount (AEM) is developed in automotive industry to improve overall NVH performance. The AEM is designed to reduce major-order signals of engine vibration over a broad frequency range, therefore it is of vital importance to extract major-order signals from vibration before the actuator of the AEM works. This work focuses on a method of real-time extraction of the major-order acceleration signals at the passive side of the AEM. Firstly, the transient engine speed is tracked and calculated, from which the FFT method with a constant sampling rate is used to identify the time-related frequencies as the fundamental frequencies. Then the major-order signals in frequency domain are computed according to the certain multiple relation of the fundamental frequencies. After that, the major-order signals can be reconstructed in time domain, which are proved accurate through offline simulation, compared with the given signals.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Comprehensive Evaluation Research and Application on Vehicle Engine Exhaust System

2018-04-15
2018-01-5011
During current design process of vehicle engine exhaust system, the frequently-used approach mainly concerns an individual component, which usually results in not meeting the overall design requirements or unreasonable design parameters. Here a concept of comprehensive evaluation metrics for vehicle engine exhaust system was established, of which a new weight factor assignment method was proposed, named change rate method, as the core of evaluation system to be especially studied. Taking muffler as an instance, six weight factor assignment schemes were adopted to compare with each other. And the rationality and practicability of the change rate assignment method was verified by the muffler noise experiments. The results show that, the change rate method makes the weight assignment more scientific and rigorous. And the new method can reflect the wishes of designers and completely displays the performance comparison and evaluation between schemes.
Technical Paper

A Road Load Data Processing Method for Transmission Durability Optimization Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1062
With increasing pressure from environment problem for reduction in CO2 emissions and stricter fuel targets from road vehicles, new transmission technologies are gaining more attention in different main market. To get suitable road load data for transmission durability development is becoming increasingly important and can shorten the development time of new transmission. This paper presents the procedure and methods of road load data development for durability design of transmission product and optimization based on the real road data measurement, statistical characteristics evaluation and fatigue damage equivalency. Apply this road load data method procedure on 3 type of vehicle which represent conventional vehicle, BEV and HEV.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crevice HC Mechanism Based on the Transient HC Test Data and the Double Zone Combustion Model

2008-06-23
2008-01-1652
The effectiveness of after-treatment systems depends on the exhaust gas temperature, which is low during cold-start. As a result, Euro III, Euro IV and FTP75 require that the emissions tests include exhaust from the beginning of cold start. It is proved that 50%∼80% of HC and CO emissions are emitted during the cold start and the amount of unburned fuel from the crevices during starting is much higher than that under warmed engine conditions. The piston crevices is the most part of combustion chamber crevices, and results of mathematical simulations show that the piston crevice contribution to HC emissions is expected to increase during cold engine operation. Based on the transient HC test data and the double zone combustion model, this paper presents the study of the crevice HC Mechanism of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle.
Technical Paper

A Study of Parameter Inconsistency Evolution Pattern in Parallel-Connected Battery Modules

2017-03-28
2017-01-1194
Parallel-connected modules have been widely used in battery packs for electric vehicles nowadays. Unlike series-connected modules, the direct state inconsistency caused by parameter inconsistency in parallel modules is current and temperature non-uniformity, thus resulting in the inconsistency in the speed of aging among cells. Consequently, the evolution pattern of parameter inconsistency is different from that of series-connected modules. Since it’s practically impossible to monitor each cell’s current and temperature information in battery packs, considering cost and energy efficiency, it’s necessary to study how the parameter inconsistency evolves in parallel modules considering the initial parameter distribution, topology design and working condition. In this study, we assigned cells of 18650 format into several groups regarding the degree of capacity and resistance inconsistency. Then all groups are cycled under different environmental temperature and current profile.
Journal Article

Acoustic Characteristics Prediction and Optimization of Wheel Resonators with Arbitrary Section

2020-04-14
2020-01-0917
Tire cavity noise of pure electric vehicles is particularly prominent due to the absence of engine noise, which are usually eliminated by adding Helmholtz resonators with arbitrary transversal section to the wheel rims. This paper provides theoretical basis for accurately predicting and effectively improving acoustic performance of wheel resonators. A hybrid finite element method is developed to extract the transversal wavenumbers and eigenvectors, and the mode-matching scheme is employed to determine the transmission loss of the Helmholtz resonator. Based on the accuracy validation of this method, the matching design of the wheel resonators and the optimization method of tire cavity noise are studied. The identification method of the tire cavity resonance frequency is developed through the acoustic modal test. A scientific transmission loss target curve and fitness function are defined according to the noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

Active and Passive Control of Torsional Vibration in Vehicle Hybrid Powertrain System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0408
The vibration characteristics of hybrid vehicles are very different from that of traditional fuel vehicles. In this paper, the active and passive control schemes are used to inhibit the vibration issues in vehicle hybrid powertrain system. Firstly the torsional vibration mechanical model including engine, motor and planetary gear subsystems is established. Then the transient vibration responses of typical working condition are analyzed through power control strategy. Consequently the active and passive control of torsional vibration in hybrid powertrain system is proposed. The active control of the motor and generator torque is designed and the vehicle longitudinal vibration is reduced. The vibration of the planetary gear system is ameliorated with passive control method by adding torsional vibration absorbers to power units. The vibration characteristics in vehicle hybrid powertrain system are effectively improved through the active and passive control.
Technical Paper

An Anti-Lock Braking Control Strategy for 4WD Electric Vehicle Based on Variable Structure Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0717
Based on the four-wheel-drive electric vehicle (4WD EV), a variable structure control (VSC) strategy is designed in this paper for the anti-lock braking control. With nonpeak friction coefficient as target, sign judgment method of switch function in this VSC strategy is improved and a new control algorithm is proposed. The improved VSC strategy is made robust to the parameters of the algorithm and verified by the computer simulation as well as the hard-in-loop test. The results show that the slip rate can be controlled to a point in the stable area near the optimal slip ratio and the control strategy can effectively realize the anti-lock braking control.
Technical Paper

An FxLMS Controller for Active Control Engine Mount with Experimental Secondary Path Identification

2020-04-14
2020-01-0424
Active engine mounts (AEMs) notably contribute to ensuring superior performance of vehicle’s noise, vibration, and harshness. This paper incorporates a filtered-x-least-mean-squares (FxLMS) controller into the active control engine mount system to attenuate the transmitted force to the body. To avoid the error caused by substituting the load cell for acceleration transducer, the FIR model of the secondary path was obtained by experiment. Finally, a hardware-in-the-loop testing system is built to verify the performance of the active engine mount. It can be observed from the test results that the vibration is reduced notably after control, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the active engine mount and the controller in vibration attenuation.
Technical Paper

An Improved PID Controller Based on Particle Swarm Optimization for Active Control Engine Mount

2017-03-28
2017-01-1056
Manufacturers have been encouraged to accommodate advanced downsizing technologies such as the Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) to satisfy commercial demands of comfort and stringent fuel economy. Particularly, Active control engine mounts (ACMs) notably contribute to ensuring superior effectiveness in vibration attenuation. This paper incorporates a PID controller into the active control engine mount system to attenuate the transmitted force to the body. Furthermore, integrated time absolute error (ITAE) of the transmitted force is introduced to serve as the control goal for searching better PID parameters. Then the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted for the first time to optimize the PID parameters in the ACM system. Simulation results are presented for searching optimal PID parameters. In the end, experimental validation is conducted to verify the optimized PID controller.
Journal Article

Analysis of Friction Induced Stability, Bifurcation, Chaos, Stick-slip Vibration and their Impacts on Wiping Effect of Automotive Wiper System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0021
A 2 DOF nonlinear dynamic model of the automotive wiper system is established. Complex eigenvalues are calculated based on the complex modal theory, and the system stability as well as its dependence on wiping velocity is analyzed. Bifurcation characteristics of frictional self-excited vibration and stick-slip vibration relative to wiping velocity are studied through numerical analysis. Research of nonlinear vibration characteristics under various wiping velocities is conducted by means of phase trajectories, Poincaré map and frequency spectrum. The pervasive stick-slip vibration during wiping is confirmed, and its temporal and spatial distributions are analyzed by way of time history and contour map. Duty ratio of stick vibration and statistics of scraping residual are introduced as quantitative indexes for wiping effect evaluation. Results indicate that the negative slop of frictional-velocity characteristic is the root cause of system instability.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Geographically Distributed Vehicle Powertrain System Validation Platform Based on X-in-the-Loop Theory

2017-03-28
2017-01-1674
X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. In order to develop and validate an extended validation method based on XiL, Tongji University in Shanghai, China and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Karlsruhe, Germany co- performed a feasibility study about an X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform. The X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform includes a MATLAB/Simulink software platform and geographically distributed equipment (driver simulator, driving electric motor and dynamometer test stand), which are used to conduct bidirectional experiments to test communication of powertrain data between China and Germany.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Fatigue Load and Life about the Frame of a Low-Speed Electric Vehicle Based on Multi-Body Dynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0334
The frame of a low-speed electric vehicle was treated as the research object in the paper. The fatigue load of the frame was analyzed with multi-body dynamics method and the fatigue life of frame was analyzed with the nominal stress method. Firstly, the multi-body dynamics model of the vehicle was established and the multi-body dynamics simulation was carried out to simulate the condition where the vehicle used to travel. The fatigue load history of the frame was obtained from the simulation. Secondly, the amplitude-frequency characteristic of the fatigue load was analyzed. The frequency of the fatigue load mainly focused on 0~20HZ from the analysis. Thirdly, the modal of frame was analyzed. As the frequency of the fatigue load was less than the natural frequency of the frame, the quasi-static method was selected to calculate the stress history of the frame. Next, the fatigue life of the frame was analyzed based on S-N curve.
Journal Article

Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design on An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1578
Two control strategies, safety preferred control and master cylinder oscillation control, were designed for anti-lock braking on a novel integrated-electro-hydraulic braking system (I-EHB) which has only four solenoid valves in its innovative hydraulic control unit (HCU) instead of eight in a traditional one. The main idea of safety preferred control is to reduce the hydraulic pressure provided by the motor in the master cylinder whenever a wheel tends to be locking even if some of the other wheels may need more braking torque. In contrast, regarding master cylinder oscillation control, a sinusoidal signal is given to the motor making the hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder oscillate in certain frequency and amplitude. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the two control strategies mentioned above and to evaluate them.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Droplets under Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

2018-09-10
2018-01-1807
It has been revealed by researches that lubricant properties have a great effect on the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) frequency in downsizing turbocharged direct-injection engines which are developed for better fuel economy. Droplets of lubricant or lubricant-gasoline mixture are considered to be the potential pre-ignition sources. Those droplets fly into the combustion chamber and ignite the gasoline-air mixture. To study lubricant droplets fundamentally, a novel set of droplet auto-ignition system is designed based on a Dibble Burner for this experiment. Influences of metallic additive contents, viscosities, lubricant diluted with gasoline and waste lubricant on the ignition delay of droplets are investigated by testing 12 groups of lubricants or lubricant-gasoline mixture. The equivalent diameter of each droplet generated by micro-syringes is around 2.1 mm. The co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K, and the experiments are carried out at atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Braking Pressure Tracking Control of a Pressure Sensor Unequipped Electro-Hydraulic Booster Based on a Nonlinear Observer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0581
BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the vehicle safety performance due to high control accuracy and fast response speed. As one solution of BBW, the novel Integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is proposed, which consists of electro-hydraulic booster and hydraulic pressure control unit. The electro-hydraulic booster is activated by an electric motor that driving linear motion mechanism to directly produce the master cylinder pressure. With electro-hydraulic booster as an actuator, the hydraulic pressure control problem is a key issue. Most literatures deal with the pressure control issue based on the feedback pressure signal measured by pressure sensor. As far as the authors are aware, none of the proposed techniques takes into account the pressure sensor unequipped BBW. In this paper, there is no pressure feedback signal, but there is only position feedback signal measured by position sensor for control law design.
X