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Technical Paper

A Usability Study on In-Vehicle Gesture Control

2016-09-14
2016-01-1870
Gesture control has been increasingly applied to automotive industry to reduce the distraction caused by in-vehicle interactions to the primary task of driving. The aim of this study is to find out if gestures can reasonably be used to control in-car devices. Since there exists a big cultural difference of gesture between different countries because of its particularity, a set of gestures which support intuitive human-machine interaction in an automotive environment is searched. The results show a gesture dictionary for a variety of on-board functions, which conforms to Chinese drivers’ driving habits. Furthermore, this paper also describes a driving simulator test to evaluate the usability of gesture from different aspects including the effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, memorability and security. Static driving simulator is considered as an excellent environment for the in-car secondary task as its high safety level, repeatability and reliability.
Journal Article

Active Noise Equalization of Vehicle Low Frequency Interior Distraction Level and its Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-1303
On the study of reducing the disturbance on driver’s attention induced by low frequency vehicle interior stationary noise, a subjective evaluation is firstly carried out by means of rank rating method which introduces Distraction Level (DL) as evaluation index. A visual-finger response test is developed to help evaluating members better recognize the Distraction Level during the evaluation. A non-linear back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is then modeled for the prediction of subjective Distraction Level, in which linear sound pressure RMS amplitudes of five Critical Band Rates (CBRs) from 20 to 500Hz are selected as inputs of the model. These inputs comprise an input vector of BPANN. Furthermore, active noise equalization (ANE) on DL is realized based on Filtered-x Least Mean Square (FxLMS) algorithm that controls the gain coefficients of inputs of trained BPANN.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Design of Driver Steering Override Characteristics for LKAS

2019-11-04
2019-01-5030
Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) is a typical lateral driver assistance system with low acceptance. One of the main reasons is that fixed parameters cannot satisfy individual differences. So LKAS adaptive to driver characteristics needs to be designed. Driver Steering Override (DSO) process is an important process of LKAS. It happens when contradiction between driver’s intention and system behavior occurs. As feeling of overriding will affect the overall experience of using LKAS, the design of DSO characteristics is worthy of attention. This research provided an adaptive design scheme aiming at DSO characteristics for LKAS by building Driver Preference Model (DPM) based on simulator test data from preliminary experiments. The DPM was to represent the relationship between driver characteristics indices and driver preferred system characteristics indices. So that new drivers’ preference can be predicted by DPM based on their own daily driving data with LKAS switched off.
Technical Paper

An Interactive Racing Car Driving Simulator Based on TCP/IP

2009-05-13
2009-01-1609
Real-time interaction between a driver and the simulator is problematic. In this study, the racing car driving simulator has been established, which is composed of the following functional components: Motion Controller, Simview, Scenario Editor, Application Programmer Interface (APIs) and Crash Simulation. With TCP/IP protocol, the Motion Controller receives driver's manipulation, road unevenness and crash situation of Simview, then generates motion streams that reflecting the current conditions, and sends them to Simview and to the hydraulic platform. Furthermore, by detecting and analyzing general vehicle two-dimensional impact, a kind of complete and applicable calculation method has been established, and complicated vehicle impacts can be analyzed accurately. This racecar driving simulator places a racing driver in a interactive environment, and provides the driver with high-fidelity motion, visual, auditory, and force feedback cues.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Driver Emergency Steering Behavior Based on the China Naturalistic Driving Data

2016-09-14
2016-01-1872
Based on the emergency lane change cases extracted from the China naturalistic driving data, the driving steering behavior divides into three phases: collision avoidance, lateral movement and steering stabilization. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the distribution of the duration time, the relationship between steering wheel rate and deflection were analyzed in three phases. It is shown that the steering behavior essentially is composed of steering primitives during the emergency lane-change. However, the combination of the steering primitives is different according to the specific steering constraints in three phases. In the collision avoidance phase, a single steering primitive with high peak is used for the fast steering; in the lateral movement and stabilization phase, a combination of two or even more steering primitives is built to a more accurate steering.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Geographically Distributed Vehicle Powertrain System Validation Platform Based on X-in-the-Loop Theory

2017-03-28
2017-01-1674
X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. In order to develop and validate an extended validation method based on XiL, Tongji University in Shanghai, China and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Karlsruhe, Germany co- performed a feasibility study about an X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform. The X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform includes a MATLAB/Simulink software platform and geographically distributed equipment (driver simulator, driving electric motor and dynamometer test stand), which are used to conduct bidirectional experiments to test communication of powertrain data between China and Germany.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Machine Interaction Program in Lane Keeping Assist System Based on Field Test

2018-08-07
2018-01-1632
Lane-keeping assist system (LKA) alerts the driver or intervenes in the driving when the vehicle deviates from the lane. But its effect is highly dependent on the driver’s acceptance. Distance to Lane Crossing (DTLC) and Time to Lane Crossing (TTLC) are two important factors to consider the danger level of the scenario, which are also two references for drivers to make decisions. At present, most of the functional design standards are based on these values, while they often differ for different vehicle movements. This study uses a driving robot to precisely control the test conditions and performs field tests on two advanced autonomous vehicles in National Intelligent Connected Vehicle (Shanghai) Pilot Zone. The test conditions are extended based on various test standards and the LKA performance of vehicles in the pre-experiment.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Steering Model for Emergency Lane Change Based on the China Naturalistic Driving Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1399
A driver steering model for emergency lane change based on the China naturalistic driving data is proposed in this paper. The steering characteristic of three phases is analyzed. Using the steering primitive fitting by Gaussian function, the steering behaviors in collision avoidance and lateral movement phases can be described, and the stabilization steering principle of yaw rate null is found. Based on the steering characteristic, the near and far aim point used in steering phases is analyzed. Using the near and far aim point correction model, a driver steering model for emergency lane change is established. The research results show that the driver emergency steering model proposed in this paper performs well when explaining realistic steering behavior, and this model can be used in developing the ADAS system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Correlation between Driver's Visual Features and Driver Intention

2019-04-02
2019-01-1229
Driver behaviors provide abundant information and feedback for future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Driver’s eye and head may present some typical movement patterns before executing driving maneuvers. It is possible to use driver’s head and eye movement information for predicting driver intention. Therefore, to determine the most important features related to driver intention has attracted widespread research interests. In this paper, a method to analyze the correlation between driver’s visual features and driver intention is proposed, aiming to determine the most representative features for driver intention prediction. Firstly, naturalistic driving experiment is conducted to collect driver’s videos during executing lane keeping and lane change maneuvers. Then, driver’s head and face visual features are extracted from those videos. By using boxplot and independent samples T-test, features which have significant correlation with driver intention are found.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Driver’s Breaking Response in the Safety Cut-in Scenario Based on Naturalistic Driving

2019-11-04
2019-01-5053
For the personification of automotive vehicle function performance under common traffic scenarios, analysis of human driver behavior is necessary. Based on China Field Operational Test (China-FOT) database of China Natural Driving Study project, this paper studies the driver's response in the common cut-in scenario. A total of 266 cut-in cases are selected by manual interception of driving recorder video. The relevant traffic environment characteristics are also extracted from video, including light conditions, road conditions, scale and lateral position of cut-in vehicle, etc. Dynamic information is decoded form CAN, such as speed, acceleration and so on. Then image processing results, such as relative speed and distance of cut-in and subject vehicles, are calculated. Statistical results based on above information show the response type and distribution of human driver: the behavior of keeping lane is 96.24%, in which the ratio of braking response is 51.13%.
Technical Paper

Correlation Analysis of Interior and Exterior Wind Noise Sources of a Production Car Using Beamforming Techniques

2017-03-28
2017-01-0449
Beamforming techniques are widely used today in aeroacoustic wind tunnels to identify wind noise sources generated by interaction between incoming flow and the test object. In this study, a planar spiral microphone array with 120 channels was set out-of-flow at 1:1 aeroacoustic wind tunnel of Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC) to test exterior wind noise sources of a production car. Simultaneously, 2 reference microphones were set in vehicle interior to record potential sound source signal near the left side view mirror triangle and the signal of driver’s ear position synchronously. In addition, a spherical array with 48 channels was set inside the vehicle to identify interior noise sources synchronously as well. With different correlation methods and an advanced algorithm CLEAN-SC, the ranking of contributions of vehicle exterior wind noise sources to interested interior noise locations was accomplished.
Technical Paper

Critical Driving Scenarios Extraction Optimization Method Based on China-FOT Naturalistic Driving Study Database

2018-08-07
2018-01-1628
Due to the differences in traffic situations and traffic safety laws, standards for extraction of critical driving scenarios (CDSs) vary from different countries and areas around the world. To maintain the characteristic variables under the Chinese typical CDSs, this paper uses the three-layer detection method to extract and detect CDSs in the Natural Driving Data from China-FOT project which executing under the real traffic situation in China. The first layer of detection is mainly based on the feature distributions which deviate from normal driving situations. These distributions associated with speed and longitudinal acceleration/lateral acceleration/yaw rate also quantify the critical levels classification.
Journal Article

Differential Drive Assisted Steering Control for an In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1599
For an electric vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors, the torque of each wheel can be controlled precisely and independently. A closed-loop control method of differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) has been proposed to improve vehicle steering properties based on those advantages. With consideration of acceleration requirement, a three dimensional characteristic curve that indicates the relation between torque and angle of the steering wheel at different vehicle speeds was designed as a basis of the control system. In order to deal with the saturation of motor's output torque under certain conditions, an anti-windup PI control algorithm was designed. Simulations and vehicle tests, including pivot steering test, lemniscate test and central steering test were carried out to verify the performance of the DDAS in steering portability and road feeling.
Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Classification under Cut-In Scenarios Using Support Vector Machine Based on Naturalistic Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0136
Cut-in scenario is common in traffic and has potential collision risk. Human driver can detect other vehicle’s cut-in intention and take appropriate maneuvers to reduce collision risk. However, autonomous driving systems don’t have as good performance as human driver. Hence a deeper understanding on driving behavior is necessary. How to make decisions like human driver is an important problem for automated vehicles. In this paper, a method is proposed to classify the dangerous cut-in situations and normal ones. Dangerous cases were extracted automatically from naturalistic driving database using specific detection criteria. Among those cases, 70 valid dangerous cut-in cases were selected manually. The largest deceleration of subject vehicle is over 4 m/s2. Besides, 249 normal cut-in cases were extracted by going through video data of 2000km traveled distance. In normal driving cases, subject vehicle may brake or keep accelerating and the largest deceleration was less than 3 m/s2.
Technical Paper

Driver Brake Parameters Analysis under Risk Scenarios with Pedalcyclist

2016-04-05
2016-01-1451
In China there are many mixed driving roads which cause a lot of safety problems between vehicles and pedalcyclists. Research on driver behavior under risk scenarios with pedalcyclist is relatively few. In this paper driver brake parameters under naturalistic driving are studied and pedalcyclists include bicyclist, tricyclist, electric bicyclist and motorcyclist. Brake reaction time and maximum brake jerk are used to evaluate driver brake reaction speed. Average deceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver brake operation. Maximum deceleration is used to evaluate driver braking ability. Driver behaviors collected in China are classified and risk scenarios with pedalcyclist are obtained. Driver brake parameters are extracted and statistical characteristics of driver brake parameters are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA and regression analysis.
Technical Paper

Driver Lane Keeping Characteristic Indices for Personalized Lane Keeping Assistance System

2017-09-23
2017-01-1982
In the recent years, the interaction between human driver and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has gradually aroused people’s concern. As a result, the concept of personalized ADAS is being put forward. As an important system of ADAS, Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) also attracts great attention. To achieve personalized LKAS, driver lane keeping characteristic (DLKC) indices which could distinguish different driver lane keeping behavior should be researched. However, there are few researches on DLKC indices for personalized LKAS. Although there are many researches on modeling driver steering behavior, these researches are not sufficient to obtain DLKC indices. One reason is that most of researches are for double lane change behavior which is different from driver lane keeping behavior. The other reason is that the researches on driver lane keeping behavior only provide model structure and rarely discuss identification procedure such as how to select suitable data.
Technical Paper

Driver Risk Perception Model under Critical Cut-In Scenarios

2018-08-07
2018-01-1626
In China Cut-in scenarios are quite common on both highway and urban road with heavy traffic. They have a potential risk of rear-end collision. When facing a cutting in vehicle, driver tends to brake in most case to reduce collision risk. The timing and dynamic characteristics of brake maneuver are indicators of driver subjective risk perception. Time to collision (TTC) and Time Headway (THW) demonstrate objective risk. This paper aims at building a model quantitatively revealing the relationship between drivers’ subjective risk perception and objective risk. A total of 66 valid critical Cut-in cases was extracted from China-FOT, which has a travel distance of about 130 thousand miles. It is found that under Cut-in scenarios, driver tended to brake when the cutting in vehicle right crossing line. This time point was defined as initial brake time. Brake strength and brake speed were taken to describe brake maneuver.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Behavioral Modeling Methods for Motor Drive System EMI Design Optimization

2015-04-14
2015-01-1204
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a common problem in power electronics systems. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of semiconductor devices in a power converter circuit creates discontinuity in voltage and current with rich harmonics over a broad frequency range, creating both conducted and radiated noise. The increase in switching speed enabled by new power semiconductor devices helps to reduce converter size and reduce switching losses, but further exacerbates the EMI problem. Complying with regulatory EMI emission limits requires the use of EMI filters in almost all power converter designs, and EMI filters are often the dominant elements for system volume, weight, and cost. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering is a critical driver for volume and weight for many applications, particularly in airborne and other mobile platforms.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Control by Combining the Yaw Moment with Steering Assistance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0818
The coordinated control of stability and steering systems in collision avoidance steering evasion has been widely studied in vehicle active safety area, but the studies are mainly aimed at autonomous vehicle without driver or conventional combustion engine vehicle. This paper focuses on the control of hybrid vehicle integrated with rear hub in emergency steering evasion situation, and considering the driver’s characteristics. First, the mathematics model of vehicle dynamics and driver has been given. Second, based on the planned steering evasion path, the model predictive control method is presented for achieving higher evasion path tracking accuracy under driver’s steering input. The prediction model includes an adaptive preview distance driver model and a vehicle dynamics model to predict the driver input and the vehicle trajectory.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Optimization of Driver Steering Override Strategy for LKAS Based on Driver’s Acceptability

2018-08-07
2018-01-1631
In order to satisfy design requirements of Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS), a Driver Steering Override (DSO) strategy is necessary for driver’s interaction with the assistance system. The assistance system can be overridden by the strategy in case of lane change, obstacle avoidance and other emergency situations. However, evaluation and optimization of the DSO strategy for LKAS cannot easily be completed quantitatively considering driver’s acceptability. In this research, firstly subjective and objective evaluation experiment is designed. Secondly, correlations between the subjective and the objective evaluation results are established by using regression analysis. Finally, based on the correlations established previously, the optimal performance of DSO strategy is obtained by setting the desired comprehensive evaluation ratings as the optimized goal.
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