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Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Fuel Cell Prediction Models Based on Relevance Vector Machines with Different Kernel Functions

2021-04-06
2021-01-0728
Fuel cell reactors, as the core components of fuel cell vehicles, have a short life problem that has always limited the development of fuel cell vehicles. The life attenuation curve of fuel cell shows nonlinear characteristics, and there is no model that can accurately predict its effect. This paper is based on the experimental data of the vehicle fuel cell reactor, which is derived from the 600 h durability test run by a 4 kW fuel cell reactor. The relevance vector machine, as a Bayes processing method that supports vector machine, is a data-driven method based on kernel functions. The regression model is established by the relevance vector machine, and the super-parameters are found by genetic algorithm, because the kernel function strongly affects the nonlinearity of the curve, and the decay curve of fuel cell reactor performance is predicted according to four different kernel functions.
Journal Article

A Data Driven Fuel Cell Life-Prediction Model for a Fuel Cell Electric City Bus

2021-04-06
2021-01-0739
Life prediction is a major focus for a commercial fuel cell stack, especially applied in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). This paper proposes a data driven fuel cell lifetime prediction model using particle swarm optimized back-propagation neural network (PSO-BPNN). For the prediction model PSO-BP, PSO algorithm is used to determine the optimal hyper parameters of BP neural network. In this paper, total voltage of fuel cell stack is employed to represent the health index of fuel cell. Then the proposed prediction model is validated by the aging data from PEMFC stack in FCEV at the actual road condition. The experimental results indicate that PSO-BP model can predict the voltage degradation of PEMFC stack at actual road condition precisely and has a higher prediction accuracy than BP model.
Journal Article

A Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Gas Purge in Flow Channel with Real GDL Surface Characteristics for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2019-04-02
2019-01-0389
Gas purge is considered as an essential shutdown process for a PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell), especially in subfreezing temperature. The water flooding phenomenon inside fuel cell flow channel have a marked impact on performance in normal operating condition. In addition, the residual water freezes in the subzero temperature, thus blocking the mass transfer from flow channel to porous media. Therefore, the gas purge course is of primary importance for improvement of performance and durability. The water droplet residing in the flow channel can be purged out due to shearing force of gas. In fact, the flow channel is not completely flat due to surface roughness of gas diffusion layer (GDL), meaning the water droplet may climb over obstacles. Moreover, the water droplet may block the flow channel and then be sheared into films on the surface of GDL.
Journal Article

A Novel Asynchronous UWB Positioning System for Autonomous Trucks in an Automated Container Terminal

2020-04-14
2020-01-1026
As a critical technology for autonomous vehicles, high precise positioning is essential for automated container terminals to implement intelligent dispatching and to improve container transport efficiency. Because of the unstable performance of global positioning system (GPS) in some circumstances, an ultra wide band (UWB) positioning system is developed for autonomous trucks in an automated container terminal. In this paper, an asynchronous structure is adopted in the system, and a three-dimensional (3D) localization method is proposed. Other than a traditional UWB positioning system with a server, in this asynchronous system, positions are calculated in the vehicle. Therefore, propagation delays from the server to vehicles are eliminated, and the real-time performance can be significantly improved. Traditional 3D localization methods based on time difference of arrival (TDOA) are mostly invalid with anchors in the same plane.
Technical Paper

A Progress Review on Gas Purge for Enhancing Cold Start Performance in PEM Fuel Cell

2018-04-03
2018-01-1312
Cold start capability is one of remaining major challenges in realizing PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology for automotive applications. Gas purge is a common and integral shutdown procedure of a PEMFC automotive in subzero temperature. A dryer membrane electrode assembly (MEA) can store more water before it gets saturated and ice starts to penetrate in the open pores of porous media, thus enhancing cold start capability of a PEMFC. Therefore, gas purge is always performed prior to fuel cell shutdown to minimize residual water in a PEMFC. In the hope of improving effectiveness of purge in a PEMFC vehicle, two important purge parameters are evaluated including purge time and energy requirement. In practice, an optimized gas purge protocol should be developed with minimal parasitic energy, short purge duration and no degradation of components. To conclude, the cold start capability and performance can be consolidated by proper design of gas purge strategies.
Technical Paper

A Progress Review on Heating Methods and Influence Factors of Cold Start for Automotive PEMFC System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0852
Fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have become a promising transportation tool because of their high efficiency, fast response and zero-emission. However, the cold start problem is one of the main obstacles to limit the further commercialization of FCV in cold weather countries. Many efforts have made to improve the cold start ability. This review presents comprehensive heating methods and influence factors of the research progress in solving the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) system cold start problems with more than 100 patents, papers and reports, which may do some help for PEMFC system cold start from the point of practical utilization. Firstly, recent achievements and goals will be summarized in the introduction part. Then, regarding the heating strategies for the PEMFC system cold start, different heating solutions are classified into self-heating strategies and auxiliary-heating heating depending on their heating sources providing approach.
Technical Paper

A Study of Parameter Inconsistency Evolution Pattern in Parallel-Connected Battery Modules

2017-03-28
2017-01-1194
Parallel-connected modules have been widely used in battery packs for electric vehicles nowadays. Unlike series-connected modules, the direct state inconsistency caused by parameter inconsistency in parallel modules is current and temperature non-uniformity, thus resulting in the inconsistency in the speed of aging among cells. Consequently, the evolution pattern of parameter inconsistency is different from that of series-connected modules. Since it’s practically impossible to monitor each cell’s current and temperature information in battery packs, considering cost and energy efficiency, it’s necessary to study how the parameter inconsistency evolves in parallel modules considering the initial parameter distribution, topology design and working condition. In this study, we assigned cells of 18650 format into several groups regarding the degree of capacity and resistance inconsistency. Then all groups are cycled under different environmental temperature and current profile.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Modeling of the Centrifugal Compressor and Stability Analysis of the Compression System for Fuel Cell Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0733
The centrifugal compressor is one of the most commonly used air compressors for fuel cell air supply systems, and it has the small volume, high pressure ratio and low noise. However, surge in a centrifugal compressor severely limits its stable flow range. In this paper, a mathematical model of the compressor aerodynamic performance based on the energy transfer method was established, some parameters of model were identified by experimental data, and the model was validated through experiments. Then the dynamic model of the compression system was derived based on the compressor model and the Moore-Greitzer model. The stability analysis of the compression system was conducted, and it was strictly proved that when the compression system is unstable, there is the limit cycle in this nonlinear system, namely the surge cycle. Furthermore, the simulation of the compression system was conducted and the instability condition of the compression system was presented.
Technical Paper

An ADAS-Oriented Virtual EPS Platform Based on the Force Feedback Actuator of the Steer-by-Wire System

2016-09-14
2016-01-1905
Electric Power Steering (EPS) is the actuator of several lateral-dynamic-related Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A driving simulator with EPS will be much helpful for the ADAS development. However, if a real EPS is used in the driving simulator, it is quite difficult to realize the road reaction force accurately and responsively. To overcome this weakness, a virtual EPS platform is established. The virtual EPS platform contains two parts: one is the vehicle and EPS model, the other is the force feedback actuator (FFA) of the Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system. The FFA is an interface between the driver and the EPS/vehicle model. The reactive torque of the FFA is obtained based on the models. Meanwhile, the input of the EPS model is the steering angle of the FFA. Comparing to a real EPS, the virtual EPS platform has a problem of instability because of the actuator lag of the FFA. Therefore, a damping control method is applied to make the system stable.
Technical Paper

An Improved PID Controller Based on Particle Swarm Optimization for Active Control Engine Mount

2017-03-28
2017-01-1056
Manufacturers have been encouraged to accommodate advanced downsizing technologies such as the Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) to satisfy commercial demands of comfort and stringent fuel economy. Particularly, Active control engine mounts (ACMs) notably contribute to ensuring superior effectiveness in vibration attenuation. This paper incorporates a PID controller into the active control engine mount system to attenuate the transmitted force to the body. Furthermore, integrated time absolute error (ITAE) of the transmitted force is introduced to serve as the control goal for searching better PID parameters. Then the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted for the first time to optimize the PID parameters in the ACM system. Simulation results are presented for searching optimal PID parameters. In the end, experimental validation is conducted to verify the optimized PID controller.
Technical Paper

An Outer Loop of Trajectory and an Inner Loop of Steering Angle for Trajectory Tracking Control of Automatic Lane Change System

2019-11-04
2019-01-5029
Automatic Lane Change (ALC) function is an important step to promote the currently popular Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) within a single lane. The key issue for ALC is accurate steering angle and trajectory tracking during the lane changing process. In this paper, an MPC controller with a receding horizon is designed to track the desired trajectory. During the tracking process, other objectives such as safety and smoothness are considered. Considering of the practical mechanism and parameter uncertainties, an SMC controller is designed to track the target steering angle. For validation, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) experiment platform is established, and experiments of different control algorithms under different conditions are carried out successively. Comparisons of the experiment results of MPC+SMC and PID+SMC schemes indicate that both the trajectory error and the steering angle error of the former combination are smaller.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Statistical Energy Consumption and Its Application to an Economic Evaluation of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0933
The energy consumption depends not only on the structures of vehicles but also on their operating conditions. For vehicles with the same structure, the operating conditions will vary from driver to driver. In this paper, considering the difference of operating conditions, the concept of statistical energy consumption is proposed to reveal the statistical law of actual vehicle energy consumption. In this paper, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is taken as the research object. Based on the distribution law of three vehicle use factors, i.e. vehicle mass, daily driving distance and driving aggression, Monte Carlo method is used to simulate and calculate the statistical energy consumption and statistical comprehensive energy consumption. Then, the energy consumption values that only considered the daily driving distance is calculated.
Technical Paper

Anode Pressure Control with Fuzzy Compensator in PEMFC System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0121
Hydrogen safety is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Anode pressure control has become a focus point in recent years. The differential pressure between anode and cathode in PEMFC system needs to be carefully controlled under a suitable threshold. In practice, the anode pressure is usually controlled about 20–30kPa higher than the cathode pressure to minimize nitrogen crossover and improve cell stability. High differential pressure could lead to irreversible damage in proton exchange membrane. PID control was the dominant method to control the anode pressure in the past. However, the anode pressure’s fluctuation when hydrogen mass flow suddenly changes is a long-term challenge. As the requirements of control precision are increasingly high, the traditional PID control needs to be improved. Several new control algorithms are presented in recent researches, however, mostly are theoretical and experimental.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Droplets under Hot Co-Flow Atmosphere

2018-09-10
2018-01-1807
It has been revealed by researches that lubricant properties have a great effect on the low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) frequency in downsizing turbocharged direct-injection engines which are developed for better fuel economy. Droplets of lubricant or lubricant-gasoline mixture are considered to be the potential pre-ignition sources. Those droplets fly into the combustion chamber and ignite the gasoline-air mixture. To study lubricant droplets fundamentally, a novel set of droplet auto-ignition system is designed based on a Dibble Burner for this experiment. Influences of metallic additive contents, viscosities, lubricant diluted with gasoline and waste lubricant on the ignition delay of droplets are investigated by testing 12 groups of lubricants or lubricant-gasoline mixture. The equivalent diameter of each droplet generated by micro-syringes is around 2.1 mm. The co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K, and the experiments are carried out at atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Auto-Ignition for Lubricants and Lubricant/Gasoline Based on an Innovative Single Droplet Test System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1428
Due to the advantages of low weight, low emissions and good fuel economy, downsized turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are widely-applied nowadays. However, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) phenomenon observed in these engines restricts their improvement of performance. Some researchers have shown that auto-ignition of lubricant in the combustion chamber has a great effect on the LSPI frequency. To study the auto-ignition characteristics of lubricant, an innovative single droplet auto-ignition test system for lubricant and its mixture is designed and developed, with better accuracy and effectiveness. The experiments are carried out by hanging lubricant droplets on the thermocouple node under active thermo-atmosphere provided by a small “Dibble burner”. The auto-ignition process of lubricant droplets is recorded by a high-speed camera.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a DI Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Soybean Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1832
Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel blends (soybean methyl ester) were studied in a single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI) engine at different loads and a constant speed. The results show that NOx emission and fuel consumption are increased with increasing biodiesel percentage. Reduction of smoke opacity is significant at higher loads with a higher biodiesel ratio. Compared with the baseline diesel fuel, B20 (20% biodiesel) has a slight increase of NOx emission and similar fuel consumption. Smoke emission of B20 is close to that of diesel fuel. Results of combustion analysis indicate that start of combustion (SOC) for biodiesel blends is earlier than that for diesel. Higher biodiesel percentage results in earlier SOC. Earlier SOC for biodiesel blends is due to advanced injection timing from higher density and bulk modulus and lower ignition delay from higher cetane number.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Output Performances and Emissions of Diesel Engine Employed Common Rail Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Wasted Cooking Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1833
In this paper, the characteristics of performance and emissions of diesel and biodiesel blends are studied in a four-cylinder DI engine employing common rail injection system. The results show that engine output power is further reduced and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with the increase of the blend concentration. B100 provides average reduction by 8.6% in power and increase by 11% in BSFC. With respect to the emissions, although NOx emissions were increased with increasing the blend concentration, the increase depends on the load. Filter smoke number is reduced with increasing the blend concentration. At the same time, NO, NO2 and other specific emissions are also investigated. In addition, difference of performance and emission between standard parameters of ECU and modified parameters of ECU is investigated for B10 and B20 based on same output power. The results show that NOx emission and FSN are still lower than baseline diesel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulates and Exhaust Gases Emissions of DI Diesel Engine Employing Common Rail Fuel System Fueled with Bio-diesel Blends

2008-06-23
2008-01-1834
In this paper, characteristics of gas emission and particle size distribution are investigated in a common rail diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Gas emission and particle size distribution are measured by AVL FTIR - SESAM and SMPS respectively. The results show that although biodiesel blends would result in higher NOx emissions, characteristics of NOx emissions were also dependent on the engine load for waste cooking oil methyl ester. Higher blend concentration results in higher NO2 emission after two diesel oxidation catalyst s (DOC). A higher blend concentration leads to lower CO and SO2 emissions. No significant difference of Alkene emission is found among biodiesel blends. The particle size distributions of diesel exhaust aerosol consist of a nucleation mode (NM) with a peak below 50N• m and an accumulation mode with a peak above 50N • m. B100 will result in lower particulates with the absence of NM.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NO Emissions Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis of Cold-Start

2006-04-03
2006-01-1050
The First Firing Cycle (FFC) is very important at cold-start. Misfiring of the first firing cycle can lead to significant HC emissions and affect the subsequent cycles. This paper presents an investigation of characteristics of transient NO emissions in a small LPG SI engine with electronic gaseous injection system. To determine the optimal excess air coefficient ( λ=[A/F]/[A/F]stoic) of the first firing cycle, the emission of instantaneous NO was proposed as a useful criterion to judge if the combustion is occurred or not. A fast response NO detector- Cambustion fNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence's (CLD) method, has been employed to measure continuous, transient emissions of NO during the first firing cycle in the exhaust port of the engine. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure, instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine and engine-out HC emissions were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

Combined Technologies for Efficiency Improvement on a 1.0 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0233
The CO2 reduction request for automotive industry promotes the efforts on the engine thermal efficiency improvement. The goal of this research is to improve the thermal efficiency on an extremely downsized 3-cylinder 1.0 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. Effects of compression ratio, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), valve timing and viscosity of oil on fuel economy were studied. The results show that increasing compression ratio, from 9.6 to 12, can improve fuel economy at relative low load (below 12 bar BMEP), but has a negative effect at high load due to increased knock intensity. EGR can significantly reduce the pumping loss at low load, optimize combustion phase and reduce exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, the fuel consumption is reduced at all test points. The average brake thermal efficiency (BTE) benefit percentage is 3.47% with 9.6 compression ratio and 5.33 % with 12 compression ratio.
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