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Technical Paper

A Molecular Dynamics Analysis of the Traction Fluids

Non-equilibrium all-atom MD simulations are used to study the traction properties of hydrocarbon fluids. A fluid layer is confined between two solid Fe plates under the constant normal force of 1.0 GPa. Traction simulations are performed by applying a relative sliding motion to the Fe plates. Shear behaviors of nine hydrocarbon fluids are simulated on a sufficiently large film thickness of 6.7 nm, and succeeded in reproducing the order of the experimental traction coefficients. The dynamic mechanism of the momentum transfer on layers of fluid molecules are analyzed focusing on the intermolecular interactions (density profile, orientation factor, pair-correlation function) and intramolecular interactions (intramolecular interaction energy, conformation change of alicyclic ring). In contrast to the case of n-hexane, which shows low traction due to a fragile chain-like interaction, other mechanisms are obtained in the high traction molecules of cyclohexane, dicyclohexyl and santotrac 50.
Technical Paper

A tibial mid-shaft injury mechanism in frontal automotive crashes

Lower extremity injuries in frontal automotive crashes usually occur with footwell intrusion where both the knee and foot are constrained. In order to identify factors associated with tibial shaft injury, a series of numerical simulations were conducted using a finite element model of the whole human body. These simulations demonstrated that tibial mid-shaft injuries in frontal crashes could be caused by an abrupt change in velocity and a high rate of footwell intrusion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Friction Coefficient Variation with Moisture between Friction Surfaces

If a vehicle is left in a humid environment, the coefficient of friction between the brake pads and discs increases, generating a discomforting noise during braking called brake squeal. It is assumed that this increase in the coefficient of friction in a humid environment is the effect of moisture penetrating between the brake friction surfaces. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors causing coefficient of friction variation with moisture between the friction surfaces by dynamic observation of these surfaces. The observation was achieved by changing the disc materials from cast iron to borosilicate glass. One side of the glass brake disc was pushed onto the brake pad and the sliding surface was observed from the opposite side by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. First, a preliminary test was carried out in a dry state using two pad materials with different wear properties to select the appropriate pad for observing the friction surfaces.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Head and Neck Response During Side Impact

Numerical analyses of head and neck response during side impact are presented in this paper. A mathematical human model for side impact simulation was developed based on previous studies of other researchers. The effects of muscular activities during severe side impact were analyzed with the use of this model. This study shows that the effect of muscular activities is significant especially if the occupant is prepared to resist the impact. This result suggests that the modeling of muscles is important for the simulation of real accident situation.
Journal Article

Analysis of Oxidative Deterioration of Biodiesel Fuel

Methyl esters of saturated/unsaturated higher aliphatic acids (FAMEs) and a FAME of waste cooking oil (WCOME) were heated at 120°C in an air gas flow. The samples were analyzed before and after heating, using six different methods including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. As a result, the samples after heating were found to contain low molecular weight aliphatic compounds and oligomers of the FAME. Based on the chemical structure of these oxidation products, reaction schemes were proposed for the deterioration of FAMEs. In addition, two unsaturated FAMEs containing 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) were similarly heated and analyzed to examine the effect of BHT on the oxidation of these FAME.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Deterioration of Nylon-66 Immersed in GTL Diesel Fuel Part 1. Analysis and Test of Nylon and GTL Diesel Fuel Before and After Immersion

The effect of GTL diesel fuel on organic materials used in fuel delivery systems of vehicles was investigated. Specimens made from 16 kinds of organic materials were immersed in GTL diesel fuels synthesized at Refinery-A and Refinery-B (referred to as GTL-A and GTL-B, respectively) and then subjected to tensile testing. The tensile test results revealed that elongation of the nylon sample immersed in GTL-A was extremely small, about 4% of that of untreated nylon. In the light of this finding, the GTL diesel fuels and nylons before and after immersion test were analyzed in detail using about 20 analysis methods to determine the cause for poor elongation. The following points were found. (1) GTL-A consisted of low molecular-weight paraffins. (2) GTL-A had low molecular-weight i-paraffins. (3) The nylon immersed in GTL-A contained low molecular-weight paraffins. (4) The paraffins in the nylon immersed in GTL-A were richer in i-paraffins than the original GTL-A.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
Technical Paper

Constitutive Modeling of Brain Parenchyma Taking Account of Strain Rate Dependency with Anisotropy and Application to Brain Injury Analyses

A reduction in brain disorders owing to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head impacts in traffic accidents is needed. However, the details of the injury mechanism still remain unclear. In past analyses, brain parenchyma of a head finite element (FE) model has generally been modeled using simple isotropic viscoelastic materials. For further understanding of TBI mechanism, in this study we developed a new constitutive model that describes most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and the characteristic features of the unloading process. Validation of the model was performed against several material test data from the literature with a simple one-element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and validated against post-mortem human subject (PMHS) test data about brain displacements and intracranial pressures during head impacts.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) Version 5 Containing Multiple 1D Muscles for Estimating Occupant Motions with Muscle Activation During Side Impacts

Accurate prediction of occupant head kinematics is critical for better understanding of head/face injury mechanisms in side impacts, especially far-side occupants. In light of the fact that researchers have demonstrated that muscle activations, especially in neck muscles, can affect occupant head kinematics, a human body finite element (FE) model that considers muscle activation is useful for predicting occupant head kinematics in real-world automotive accidents. In this study, we developed a human body FE model called the THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) Version 5 that contains 262 one-dimensional (1D) Hill-type muscle models over the entire body. The THUMS was validated against 36 series of PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogate) and volunteer test data in this study, and 16 series of PMHS and volunteer test data on side impacts are presented. Validation results with force-time curves were also evaluated quantitatively using the CORA (CORrelation and Analysis) method.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact, High Capacity AWD Coupling with DLC-Si Coated Electromagnetic Clutch

We have developed a high capacity electromagnetic clutch by means of Si-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC-Si) coating. The durability of the new clutch is enhanced up to 8 times higher than that of the conventional one. Such a superior performance is due to several tribological properties of the DLC-Si film and micro morphology on the clutch surface. In particular, the DLC-Si plays a significant role in maintaining the groove shape of the clutch and giving sufficient friction in fluid, which is required for a drivetrain device. Besides, our deposition process (using direct current plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) has afforded homogeneous DLC-Si-coated clutches in large quantities. These techniques have enabled us to reduce the number of clutch discs per coupling and achieve a more compact and higher capacity AWD coupling at a lower cost.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Power Steering (EPS) System with H∞ Control

This paper deals with a case where H∞ control is applied to a basic control logic of a rack-assisted Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. In the body, the following three key features are described: Construction of the target controlled model including a vehicle Controller design for the model H∞ controller performance verification In this paper, it has been confirmed that H∞ control is valid as a basic control logic for the EPS system.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst

In conventional gasoline engine vehicles, three-way catalysts are used to simultaneously remove HC, CO and NOx from the exhaust gas. The effectiveness of the catalyst to remove these harmful species depends strongly on the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. Deterioration of three-way catalyst results in a reduction in its purification activity and OSC (oxygen storage capacity). In this investigation, additive elements were used to enhance the durability and OSC of the catalyst support material. An optimized formulation of a CeO2-ZrO2 and a ZrO2 material was developed to have excellent durability, improved OSC, enhanced interaction between precious metals and support materials, and increase thermal stability. Using these newly developed support materials, catalysts with increased performance was designed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Lower Extremity for Analyses of Automotive Crash Injuries

A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed to predict lower extremity injuries in full frontal and offset frontal impact. The model included 30bones from femur to toes. Each bone was modeled using crushable solid elements for the orbicular bone and damageable shell elements for the cortical bone. The models of the long bones for the lower extremities were validated against data obtained from quasi-static 3-pointbending tests by Yamada (1970). The ankle, knee and hip joints were modeled as bone-to-bone contacts and included major ligaments and tendons. The ankle model was validated against data obtained from quasi-staticdorsiflexion, inversion and eversion tests by Petit et al. (1996) and against data obtained from dynamic impactcadaveric tests by Kitagawa et al. (1998). The possibility of using this model to predict injuries was discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Shoulder

Previous studies have hypothesized that the shoulder may be used to absorb some impact energy and reduce chest injury due to side impacts. Before this hypothesis can be tested, a good understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder is critical for occupant protection in side impact. However, existing crash dummies and numerical models are not designed to reproduce the kinematics and kinetics of the human shoulder. The purpose of this study was to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the injury mechanisms and the kinematics of the shoulder in side impact. Basic anthropometric data of the human shoulder used to develop the skeletal and muscular portions of this model were taken from commercial data packages. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder.
Technical Paper

Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5th Percentile Female

Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50th percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5th percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0ϐ (Kimpara et al., 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al., 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor

According to the principle of pH measurement, an on-board type engine oil deterioration sensor has been developed. The developed sensor is composed of a Pb and oxidized stainless steel electrodes. The sensor signal shows a good linear relationship to the quasi-pH value of the oil. Especially in the region where the oil deterioration proceeds, the remaining basic additives in the oil is easily estimated from the sensor signal.
Technical Paper

Fretting Fatigue Analysis in Rapidly Solidified Powder Aluminum Alloy

Fretting fatigue mechanism of rapidly solidified powder aluminum alloy has been studied by model tests and analysis using fracture mechanics. The factors which influences upon fretting scar formation and fatigue crack propagation were the main concerns in the present work. In order to investigate the mechanism of fretting scar formation in detail, fretting wear tests in which small amplitude oscillatory movement occurred in the contact region were carried out. Test results showed that the size of fretting scar increased with increasing tangential force coefficient. Characteristics of fretting fatigue crack propagation were analyzed using fracture mechanics. The fatigue limits under fretting conditions were estimated by connecting the applied stress intensity factor range calculated from applied cyclic stress and tangential force, with the threshold stress intensity factor range of small crack.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Oil Viscosity on Piston Ring and Cam Face Wear

The influence of engine oil viscosity on the wear of piston rings and cam faces has been investigated by fired engine tests using a radioisotope (RI) tracer technique. High-temperature and high-shear-rate (HTHS; 150°C, 1O6 s-1) viscosities of the experimental oils prepared are 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 and 3.1 mPa•s. At an oil temperature of 90°C the wear of piston rings and cam faces did not increase, even if the HTHS viscosity was lowered down to 2.2 mPa•s. However, both piston rings and cam faces exhibited an increase in wear below 2.4 mPa•s at 130°C. It was also recognized that valve train wear did not significantly increase with reducing viscosity in the motored engine tests at a temperature of 50°C. From these test results, it was suggested that the oil with the HTHS viscosity of 2.6 mPa•s sufficiently demonstrates the antiwear performance equivalent to that with around 3.0 mPa•s for application to piston rings and cam faces.
Technical Paper

Low Friction Property and its Mechanism of DLC-Si Films Under Dry Sliding Conditions

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are of significant interest for the automobile field, because they possess the potential to improve friction properties under various sliding conditions. Among the various DLC films, the authors focus on silicon-containing DLC (DLC-Si) films, which exhibit extremely low friction coefficient under dry sliding conditions in an ambient air atmosphere. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of silicon content in DLC-Si films on the friction property of the films, and to clarify the low friction mechanism of the films. The friction test was conducted under dry sliding conditions. It was found that the films have an exceedingly low friction coefficient (about 0.05) ranging in silicon content from 4 at% to 17 at%. In order to examine the low friction mechanism of the films, surface analyses were done on the wear surface of DLC-Si films slid against bearing steel.