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Technical Paper

Effect of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Specifications on Exhaust Emission Reduction; Part 3

In order to investigate the effect of sulfur and distillation properties on exhaust emissions, emission tests were carried out using a California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) in accordance with the 1975 Federal Test Procedure ('75 FTP). To study the fuel effect on the exhaust emissions from different systems, these test results were compared with the results obtained from our previous studies using a 92MY vehicle for California Tier 1 standards and a 94MY vehicle for California TLEV standards. (1)(2) First, the sulfur effect on three regulated exhaust emissions (HC, CO and NOx) was studied. As fuel sulfur was changed from 30 to 300 ppm, the exhaust emissions from the LEV increased about 20% in NMHC, 17% in CO and 46% in NOx. To investigate the recovery of the sulfur effect, the test fuel was changed to 30 ppm sulfur after the 300 ppm sulfur tests. The emission level did not recover to that of the initial 30 ppm sulfur during three repeats of the FTP.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Components on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Components

Vehicle emissions tests were conducted using a 1992 model year Toyota Camry for California under the 1975 Federal Test Procedure. Nine fuels of different composition were prepared. Effects of gasoline composition and sulfur content on tailpipe and engine-out emissions were investigated. Exhaust mass emission test results indicated that gasoline distillation properties and sulfur content have large effect on non-methane organic gas emissions. Furthermore, fuel, engine-out, and tailpipe hydrocarbons were speciated and the relationship between fuel and exhaust specific ozone reactivity analyzed. From these studies, it is concluded that aromatics are the largest contributor to the specific ozone reactivity of exhaust emissions and these aromatics, in emissions, are mainly unburned and partly oxidized aromatics from the fuel. Fuel MTBE correlates with exhaust olefins and oxygenates.
Technical Paper

Effects of California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline Regulations on Exhaust Emission Reduction: Part 2

The 50% and 90% distillation temperature (T50 & T90), aromatics, olefins and sulfur content are regulated in California Phase2 Reformulated Gasoline. The effects of these properties on the exhaust emissions were investigated. Twelve test fuels with little interaction between T50, T90, aromatics and olefins were prepared. Exhaust emissions were measured using a TLEV according to 1975 Federal Test Procedure (75 FTP). T50 had a large effect on exhaust HC emissions. T90 also affected HC emissions. Both increasing and decreasing T50, T90 showed increasing exhaust HC emissions. These results suggest that an optimum range of T50 and T90 exist for lowering exhaust HC emissions. The effects of sulfur on exhaust emissions were also investigated. A Pt/Rh type catalyst (production type) and a Pd type catalyst (prototype) were prepared. These catalysts were put on a 94MY TLEV. Increase of sulfur lead to increase of the exhaust emissions with both catalysts.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline and Gasoline Detergents on Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation

Engine dynamometer tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of detergent additives and gasoline components on Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD). Additives with polyether amine (PEA) and with polyolefin amine (POA) chemicals were used. Three kinds of POA additives were used. Our results show that some kinds of additives and aromatics in gasoline increase CCD formation. Different polyolefin detergents show different tendency of CCD formation. The amount of CCD showed good relationship with the unwashed gum level of the gasoline. In general, smaller dosages produce less CCD. This means that detergents which have good IVD and PFID effectiveness at smaller dosage are better with regard to CCD. We analyzed the CCD by C13-NMR, GPC and IR method. The detergent contributes to CCD. Vehicle emissions tests were carried out to evaluate the effects of CCD on exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.