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Technical Paper

A Low-Speed In-Vehicle Network for Body Electronics

The authors developed a low-speed in-vehicle network for the body control system on passenger cars, where the most remarkable effects to reduce the number of wire harnesses could be expected. First, the authors analyzed the body control system to clarify the specifications required to build a low-speed in-vehicle network. Then the authors worked out optimum communication protocol, placing emphasis on cost reduction which is the key to expanding the applications of the low-speed in-vehicle network over wider fields. The low-speed in-vehicle network was evaluated for its performance through simulation and on-vehicle tests, and proved the practical validity of the concept. It was also verified that introducing the low-speed in-vehicle network has a satisfactory effect to reduce the number of wire harnesses.
Technical Paper

A Study of Stratified Charge Combustion Characteristics in New Concept Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

A new stratified charge system has been developed for direct injection gasoline engines. The special feature of this system is employment of a thin fan-shaped fuel spray formed by a slit nozzle and a shell-shaped piston cavity. This system, basically classified into the wall-guided mixture preparation concept that leads air/fuel mixture to the spark plug periphery by means of spray penetration and piston cavity configuration without an extra intake air flow controlling system, obtained wide engine operating area with stratified combustion and high output performance. This report presents the characteristics of stratified mixture formation and combustion, especially the important factor for achieving stable stratified combustion in the high-speed region, which have been clarified through analytical studies.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a New Automatic Transmission Control System for LEXUS LS400

A new automatic transmission, engineered from concept for “intelligent” and “anti-aging” (long life), has been designed and developed for TOYOTA's luxury passenger car, LEXUS LS400. This system, which has resulted in silky-smooth shift quality without changes in the long term, is composed of a transmission computer that interacts with engine computer, a number of sensors, an electronically controlled hydraulic unit with linear solenoid valves and assorted devices. As new control logic being developed with the aid of computer simulation to achieve distinction, the hydraulic and engine controls are combined in this system. There is a “feedback control”, where the clutch pressure is controlled according to the rate of acceleration and compensated for dispersion to applied pressure, engine torque and/or the coefficient of dynamic friction of clutches, and at the same time engine torque is reduced by retarding ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control System Developed for Toyota Mild Hybrid System (THS-M)

Environmental improvement is moving forward, due in part to the reduction of fuel consumption of automatic transmission(AT) vehicles as a result of social requirements in recent years and many measures have been implemented. Adoption of idling stop is a typical example introduced to reduce energy consumption while the vehicle is stopped to improve the urban environment. However, there are problems such as responsiveness and smoothness for an AT vehicle when the engine is stopped with the shift selector in “D” range. To overcome these problems, a new start clutch control system has been developed using an electric oil pump installed in a simple hybrid vehicle called a mild hybrid. As a result, a smooth feeling starting performance is achieved by operating the system in combination with the engine and other systems.
Technical Paper

Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN)

This paper describes the multiplex communication protocol, BEAN (Body Electronics Area Network), developed for body control system on passenger cars which in recent years has increased the scope of multiplex communication. BEAN is based on a protocol developed in 1992 (SAE920231) but expands upon the performance in areas, such as the suitability of the ID system for increase of ECUs, the variable data length enabling the transmission of diagnostic data, and the transmission rate, while keeping the cost and radiation noise level low. The software size of BEAN is compact enough to be implemented by general purpose 8bit MCUs which have recently seen improvements in performance. The BEAN communication devices are available corresponding to the scale of the application and configuration of the ECU taking into account the software capability. This protocol was evaluated using simulation with the body control system on luxury passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Analysis System for Noise and Vibration on Vehicles

An analysis system for vehicle noise and vibration has been developed. It consists of minicomputer based analog processing system connected with a large main-frame computer. This system features multi-modes for data analysis, fast data processing, data compatibility with conventional analog systems and feasibility. Fast data processing was achieved by newly developed FFT processor and minicomputer software. A new remote control box makes it simple to operate. Data processed by the minicomputer can be transferred to a large mainframe computer for further analysis.
Technical Paper

Control System Development with Large Flow Small Linear Solenoid for the New Toyota FWD 6-Speed Transaxle

Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 6-speed automatic transmission (U660E) for the front-wheel drive vehicles and large displacement engines. The U660 E was adapted to achieve improved environmental protection, and meet safety standards, which are large concerns for the society and customer satisfaction, by being small, light, highly efficient, quick response, and high shift quality. Toyota fundamentally improved both the hardware and software of the control system to meet these important goals.
Technical Paper

Cruise Control System Using Adaptive Control Theory

Several methods have been studied by using adaptive control in order to tune parameters of the cruise control automatically. But theoretical analysis has not been done by the reason of severe non-linearity. In this paper, a vehicle dynamics model is made with theoretical analysis, and two adaptive control methods to assist the conventional PID controller are proposed.
Technical Paper

Design of 2-Degree-of-Freedom Control System for Active Front-and-Rear-Wheel Steering

This paper describes how the 2-degree-of-freedom control concept may be applied to an active front-and-rear steering control system. The configuration of the system is explained as is the manner in which the control strategy can be devised. Simulation and test results confirm that vehicle characteristics may be varied to achieve specific aims and that steering response and vehicle stability can be independently improved.
Technical Paper

Detection of Higher Frequency Vibration to improve Knock Controllability

For a Knock Control System (KCS) with a vibration sensor mounted on the engine block, means of improving the ratio of knock signal to engine vibration noise are discussed. From analyses of cylinder pressure and engine block vibration spectrums, it is shown that noise is lower in the second knock resonance frequency. The development of a resonance type knock sensor detecting this higher frequency is described. A new KCS utilizing this sensor is evaluated and found to improve knock controllability, especially in engines with a high compression ratio or supercharging.
Technical Paper

Development of ABS and Traction Control Computer

A new ABS and Traction control system (TRAC system) has been developed and put into mass production in a new model LEXUS LS400. The TRAC system controls Sub-Throttle Valve and brake hydraulic pressure independently for left and right wheels. To realize the ABS and TRAC system,it is necessary for the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to process complex algorithm and high speed calculation. The ABS and TRAC ECU for LEXUS LS400 is constructed by 3 TOYOTA custom 8-bit single chip microcomputers. Each CPU performs wheel speed calculation,ABS control and TRAC control,sharing the common data through high speed serial communication. This paper describes the function of each CPU,the method of CPU communication and fail safe function in the ECU.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle in TOYOTA

The outline of the TOYOTA FCHV-adv is described in this paper. The TOYOTA FCHVadv achieved an approximately 25 percent improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency and about 1.9 times the amount of usable hydrogen in comparison with the previous model. These improvements have enabled almost 2.5 times longer practical cruising range, more than 500 km. The freeze start capabilities of the FCHV-adv were improved by modifying the FC stack and control system. As a result, the FCHV-adv has been capable of starting at a temperature of -30°C. In the future, TOYOTA intends to improve durability and reduce costs.
Journal Article

Development of HEV Engine Start-Shock Prediction Technique Combining Motor Generator System Control and Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) Models

Previous reports have already described the details of engine start-shock and the mechanism of vibration mechanism in a stationary vehicle. This vibration can be reduced by optimized engine and motor generator vibration-reduction controls. A prediction method using a full-vehicle MBD model has also been developed and applied in actual vehicle development. This paper describes the outline of a new method for the hybrid system of mechanical power split device with two motors that predicts engine start-shock when the vehicle is accelerating while the engine is stopped. It also describes the results of mechanism analysis and component contribution analysis. This method targets engine start-shock caused by driving torque demand during acceleration after vehicle take-off. The hybrid control system is modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. A power management and motor generator control program used in actual vehicles is installed into the main part of the control system model.
Technical Paper

Development of Hologram Head-Up Display

Instrument clusters used in automobiles play an important role as man-machine interface. A variety of information about the current driving situation is conveyed to the driver quickly and accurately. A great interest has been taken in the high visibility and legibility of the head-up display (subsequently abbreviated as HUD). Originally developed as display used in aeronautical applications, we have tried to exploit ways to adapt this device for automotive use. We have succeeded to produce a new HUD system, which has the following design features; (1) High brightness and high contrast display device using a liquid crystal display (subsequently abbreviated as LCD) and a halogen lamp illumination. (2) Long focus display in two colors using holographic lens. (3) Automatic dimming control system using an illuminance sensor. (see Fig. 1)
Technical Paper

Development of New AMT Shift Speed Control System for Lexus LFA

The development of the Lexus LFA focused on the pursuit of a passionate driving experience suitable for a super sports car. The shift speed control system in the LFA is an automated manual transmission (AMT) that uses an electrohydraulic actuator. The excellent shifting performance of the AMT was achieved by developing control technology that performs smooth, quick, and highly responsive shifting in accordance with the driving conditions. This was the result of repeated evaluations in both normal driving and on circuits featuring many acceleration, deceleration, and high-speed driving sectors. This paper describes the AMT shift speed control system and technology.
Technical Paper

Development of New Brake Control System With Gear Pump Modulator

In recent years, there has been a growing need for excellent automobile safety. The number of vehicle with active safety systems such as ABS, Brake Assist and VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) is dramatically increasing. A current brake control systems tend to generate activating noise and uncomfortable brake pedal feeling, which they have to restrain its positive use during ordinary braking. To improve this point, a new brake control system has been developed. This paper introduces the configuration, functions and effects of the system. The new hydraulic modulator adopts a gear pump (trochoid pump) and linear solenoid valves. This allows the modulator to be controlled silently and smoothly. As a result, it becomes possible to apply hydraulic pressure in the normal operating range at any time and a high level of performance is realized. Several new benefits were added to the current control system.
Technical Paper

Development of New Sports Shift Control System for Toyota's Automatic Transmission

Toyota has developed a new sports shift control system introduced in the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E), which is implemented in the “LS 460” and has been adopted in the “IS F” (upcoming 2008 model). This enables the IS F to be a vehicle that also permits the enjoyment of driving on circuits as well as achieving that “fun-to-drive” image. In sports driving, as achieved by the conventional torque converter-type automatic transmissions, shift response performance for shift operation and linearity performance for accelerator operations were challenges to tackle. On the contrary, the newly developed sports shift control system has resolved these challenges and enables the IS F to be capable of responding to a driver's intention quickly and accurately, letting the driver truly experience satisfaction.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape Optimization Technique Based on The Basis Vector Method

A practical shape optimization technique is presented. We employed the basis vector method to parameterize the shape of the structural domain that is usually discretized by the finite element method. VMA/GENESIS software, the optimization system with finite element analysis, sensitivity analysis, and numerical optimization capabilities, was used for this study. Various design problems such as body, chassis, and engine parts design are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the present approach for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Development of Sound Localization Control System for Car Stereo

In a two-loudspeaker stereophonic reproduction system of a passenger car, the geometrical configuration of the right and left loudspeakers has the disadvantage of being asymmetrical to the listener. For this system, we have made both theoretical and experimental verifications of the effects of strongly reflected sounds on the sound pressure level difference and phase difference between two ears which determine the location of sound image in a small compartment of a passenger car. On the basis of these verifications, we have developed a new sound localization control system. With this system, acoustical effects such as sound expansion and ambience have been greatly improved in a passenger car. In this system, input signals to the loudspeakers are controlled so that the sound image produced by the loudspeaker nearer to the listeners may acoustically move so as to position itself symmetrically with the other loudspeaker with regard to the listeners.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota's New “Super CVT”

Toyota has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) named “Super CVT”. The Super CVT has a wide ratio coverage and adopts a newly developed integrated control system with a direct injection gasoline engine (D-4) equipped with electronically controlled throttle. The combined package has achieved good fuel economy and a high overall level of performance. This paper shows the major features and performance of the Super CVT.