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Technical Paper

A Measuring Technology to Analyze HC Concentration in the Air Intake System while the Engine is in Operation

In order to correspond to the exhaust emissions regulations that become severe every year, more advanced engine control becomes necessary. Engine engineers are concerned about the Hydrocarbons (HCs) that flow through the air-intake ports and that are difficult to precisely control. The main sources of the HCs are, the canister purge, PCV, back-flow gas through the intake valves, and Air / Fuel ratio (A/F) may be aggravated when they flow into the combustion chambers. The influences HCs give on the A/F may also grow even greater, which is due to the increasingly stringent EVAP emission regulations, by more effective ventilation in the crankcase, and also by the growth of the VVT-operated angle and timing, respectively. In order to control the A/F more correctly, it is important to estimate the amount of HCs that are difficult to manage, and seek for suitable controls over fuel injection and so on.
Technical Paper

A Study of Noise in Vehicle Passenger Compartment during Acceleration

A discomforting noise can sometimes be heard in a vehicle passenger compartment during acceleration which can be annoying to passengers. We call this noise a “rumbling noise”. A detailed study of the rumbling noise spectrum has clarified the generating mechanism of the rumbling noise and the relation between the spectral structure and the tone. In order to analyze the rumbling noise, we simulated it with electrically synthesized noise. This method showed that at the times when the noise is heard there are always more than three discrete harmonics which are half an order harmonics of the engine revolution. The sensation of discomfort depends on the phase, frequency and magnitude of each frequency component. To evaluate the noise quantitatively, we also analyzed the shape of the time domain noise envelope. The envelope shape has a good correlation with the feelings of discomfort.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Multiplexing System for Automotive Distributed Control

On board multiplexing communication system is regarded as a necessary technology for the future of electronic system in automobiles. Many companies are developing multiplexing systems and the ISO and SAE are active in establishing standards for communication protocols. The proposed communication protocol specifications have different specifications. Consequently, no compatible evaluation standards existed, and it was difficult to compare one protocol to another. Therefore, to assist the standardization activities of the IS0 and SAE, we have developed an evaluation method for distributed multiplexed communication systems and evaluated each of the proposed protocols using this method. These evaluations were performed from the point of view of the future users of these systems. In this paper we present the results of the experiments on distributed multiplexed communication systems each of which consists of communication IC and the proposed physical layer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Stability After Releasing the Accelerator in a Turn

Vehicle stability after releasing the accelerator during limit cornering (from now on “Tuck-in”) is the behavior that the turning radius of a vehicle gets smaller after releasing the accelerator. This paper presents that the main factors of yaw moment variation by releasing the accelerator are the change of lateral forces due to longitudinal transfer of normal loads, lateral shift of vehicle center of gravity due to vehicle roll and tire lateral deflection, and the change of lateral forces due to deceleration. It also shows that roll stiffness distribution and longitudinal acceleration have an influence through the formulation of turning radius ratio.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN)

This paper describes the multiplex communication protocol, BEAN (Body Electronics Area Network), developed for body control system on passenger cars which in recent years has increased the scope of multiplex communication. BEAN is based on a protocol developed in 1992 (SAE920231) but expands upon the performance in areas, such as the suitability of the ID system for increase of ECUs, the variable data length enabling the transmission of diagnostic data, and the transmission rate, while keeping the cost and radiation noise level low. The software size of BEAN is compact enough to be implemented by general purpose 8bit MCUs which have recently seen improvements in performance. The BEAN communication devices are available corresponding to the scale of the application and configuration of the ECU taking into account the software capability. This protocol was evaluated using simulation with the body control system on luxury passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Analysis System for Noise and Vibration on Vehicles

An analysis system for vehicle noise and vibration has been developed. It consists of minicomputer based analog processing system connected with a large main-frame computer. This system features multi-modes for data analysis, fast data processing, data compatibility with conventional analog systems and feasibility. Fast data processing was achieved by newly developed FFT processor and minicomputer software. A new remote control box makes it simple to operate. Data processed by the minicomputer can be transferred to a large mainframe computer for further analysis.
Technical Paper

Control System Development with Large Flow Small Linear Solenoid for the New Toyota FWD 6-Speed Transaxle

Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 6-speed automatic transmission (U660E) for the front-wheel drive vehicles and large displacement engines. The U660 E was adapted to achieve improved environmental protection, and meet safety standards, which are large concerns for the society and customer satisfaction, by being small, light, highly efficient, quick response, and high shift quality. Toyota fundamentally improved both the hardware and software of the control system to meet these important goals.
Journal Article

Decoupled 3D Moment Control for Vehicle Motion Using In-Wheel Motors

Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of 2-Liter 6-Cylinder Gasoline Engines, Toyota 1G Engine Series

1G engine series consists of four types of 2-liter, in-line, 6-cylinder gasoline engines for passenger cars, with different performance characteristics to meet diversified market demands. These engines are already put into mass production. The original engine - 1G-EU - is a compact and light weight 2-valve OHC engine with the maximum power 77 kW/5200 rpm. The 1G-GEU is a 4-valve DOHC engine developed on the basis of the 1G-EU engine, with a higher performance and a higher power of 103 kW/6200 rpm. The 1G-GZEU is a mechanical supercharging type engine based on the 1G-GEU, with a remarkably improved performance in the low and medium engine speed ranges, and the highest power of 110 kW/6000 rpm. The 1G-GTEI! is a turbocharging type engine also based on the 1G-GEU, with a markedly improved performance in the medium and high speed ranges, and the high power of 136 kW/6200 rpm. A number of new technologies were introduced on development of these engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Bearing with Composite Overlay for High-Performance Engines

Recently, there has been a tendency of high power and high speed in automotive engines. In addition they have been also required high reliability. And engine bearings have been required to be advanced in wear resistance as well as seizure resistance. Therefore, copper-lead alloy bearings with overlay, which have better seizure resistance, have been widely used for high speed engines up to the present. But it becomes very important for them to advance the overlay wear resistance. In this paper, the composite overlay is mainly researched to improve wear resistance regarding kind of hard particles and their amounts in the overlay.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Manifold Muffler

The muffler layout in the exhaust system has been optimized for the attenuation of exhaust noise which has not been studied much to this date. As a result, “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” has been developed. This unit is capable of efficiently muffling the primary and secondary componemts of the engine explosion stroke noise. Such task is achieved without deterioration of engine performance by allocating the volume at the junction of the exhaust manifold branch pipes. Acoustic characteristics of “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” have been analyzed by FEM and experimental methods, which have shown that not only does the volume placed at the junction of the exhaust manifold branch pipes work as a conventional muffler, but also prevents the exhaust manifold branch pipes from amplifying exhaust noise. This is the reason why “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” can muffle more efficiently than the conventional muffler.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for SUV

Toyota Hybrid System (THS), that combines a gasoline engine and an electric motor was installed in the Prius, which was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car, and was vastly improved in 2003. The new Prius gained a status of highly innovative and practical vehicle. In 2005, combined with a V6 engine, THS had a further evolution as a Hybrid System for SUV, which was installed in the RX400h and Highlander Hybrid to be introduced into the world. This report will explain “new THS” which achieved both V8 engine power performance and compact class fuel economy, while securing the most stringent emission standard, SULEV.
Technical Paper

Development of In-cylinder Mixture and Flame Propagation Distribution Measurement Device with Spark Plug Type Sensor

A new method to measure in-cylinder flame propagation and mixture distribution has been developed. The distribution is derived from analyzing the temporal history of flame spectra of CH* and C2*, which are detected by a spark plug type sensor with multi-optical fibers. The validity of this method was confirmed by verifying that the measurement results corresponded with the results of high speed flame visualization and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement. This method was also applied to analysis of cyclic combustion fluctuation on start-up in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, and its applicability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape Optimization Technique Based on The Basis Vector Method

A practical shape optimization technique is presented. We employed the basis vector method to parameterize the shape of the structural domain that is usually discretized by the finite element method. VMA/GENESIS software, the optimization system with finite element analysis, sensitivity analysis, and numerical optimization capabilities, was used for this study. Various design problems such as body, chassis, and engine parts design are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the present approach for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Development of Sleeve Clinching Method and Making Practicable

We developed a fastening method to reduce noise levels and fastening work loads. The development was based on research into improved tools and fasteners. This was done in preparation for an increase in elderly worker and female worker population in the Automobile Assembly Shop. The principle of this method is to form female threads inside a straight sleeve by clinching the sleeve around a threaded bolt. We achieved improvements in component material clinching force and a durability for loosening torque compared to conventional bolt and nut methods.
Technical Paper

Development of Technology for Reclaiming Automotive Shredder Residue

Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR), the waste generated by shredding operations in the recycling of metals from scrapped automobiles, is currently disposed of in landfill sites. In Japan, disposal regulations such as leachable lead control have been changed, and moreover landfill sites are getting scarce. Therefore how to control, treat and decrease ASR is a serious matter. This study presents methods for the recycling of automotive shredder residue into automobile components by dry mechanical processing steps. These steps sort the material into several categories accrding to its properties. The material fineness is improved by further, thorough, sorting steps.
Technical Paper

Development of a Distributed Microcomputer Based Engine Performance Evaluation System

Computer aided systems for performance evaluation of functional devices for passenger cars, such as engines or transmissions, have been applied for ten years. These systems generally consist of a large main frame computer or minicomputers for conducting a large number of complicated analyses. In the past, these computer aided systems were used for vehicle research and development since they were too expensive and sophisticated for use on the production line. Today, microcomputers with mass memory or personal computers are available at very low cost in comparison to conventional minicomputers. With many distributed microcomputers, we have developed a new test and control system for the engine production line. This system consists of (1) a microcomputer with a disk system for test data storage, (2) five personal computers for the man-machine system and data processing, and (3) microcomputers for real time control and data acquistion.