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Technical Paper

A Human Factors Analysis of Optical Distortion for Automotive Windshields

1994-03-01
940390
A very difficult problem exists regarding windshield shape, and that is to create a balance between aerodynamics and optical distortion. To assist in solving this problem, this study, concerning the characteristics of visual perception for the optical distortion when drivers receive visual information through a windshield, was carried out. In this study, the windshield area was divided into 4 zones from the viewpoints of the level of drivers' fixation frequency and types of objects observed. Distortion was defined as the gap angle ( distortion angle ), which crossed the lines of a grid board with and without a windshield, and distortion angles were measured on a total of 4 windshields. Four drivers indicated areas in each windshield in which they felt the area was distorted. As a result, the thresholds of optical distortion were shown as a function of the horizontal and vertical distortion angles by discriminatory analysis.
Technical Paper

A Measuring Technology to Analyze HC Concentration in the Air Intake System while the Engine is in Operation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0142
In order to correspond to the exhaust emissions regulations that become severe every year, more advanced engine control becomes necessary. Engine engineers are concerned about the Hydrocarbons (HCs) that flow through the air-intake ports and that are difficult to precisely control. The main sources of the HCs are, the canister purge, PCV, back-flow gas through the intake valves, and Air / Fuel ratio (A/F) may be aggravated when they flow into the combustion chambers. The influences HCs give on the A/F may also grow even greater, which is due to the increasingly stringent EVAP emission regulations, by more effective ventilation in the crankcase, and also by the growth of the VVT-operated angle and timing, respectively. In order to control the A/F more correctly, it is important to estimate the amount of HCs that are difficult to manage, and seek for suitable controls over fuel injection and so on.
Technical Paper

A Multiplexing Communication IC for Automotive Body-Electronic Control

1994-03-01
940364
In the field of automotive body electronic control such as control of door locks, power windows, and wipers, there is a growing need of multiplexing communication to reduce the amount of wire harnesses. To meet this need, we developed a multiplexing communication protocol particularly suited to the body electronic control. Based on the developed protocol, we designed a communication control IC and a simple driver/receiver circuit with a few discrete components. The bus access method of the communication is the CSMA/CD with nondestructive bit arbitration, and its bit rate is 5 kbps. Its transmission media is a single wire. The communication IC has a multiplexing control block and a serial I/O block for an interface with a host CPU. It was fabricated using CMOS technology and has a chip of 2.6mm x 3.0mm in size that contains about 5,000 transistors. The driver/receiver circuit consists of one transistor, one capacitor and several resistors.
Technical Paper

A Study of Noise in Vehicle Passenger Compartment during Acceleration

1985-05-15
850965
A discomforting noise can sometimes be heard in a vehicle passenger compartment during acceleration which can be annoying to passengers. We call this noise a “rumbling noise”. A detailed study of the rumbling noise spectrum has clarified the generating mechanism of the rumbling noise and the relation between the spectral structure and the tone. In order to analyze the rumbling noise, we simulated it with electrically synthesized noise. This method showed that at the times when the noise is heard there are always more than three discrete harmonics which are half an order harmonics of the engine revolution. The sensation of discomfort depends on the phase, frequency and magnitude of each frequency component. To evaluate the noise quantitatively, we also analyzed the shape of the time domain noise envelope. The envelope shape has a good correlation with the feelings of discomfort.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of an Overtaking Articulated Heavy Goods Vehicle on Car-Trailer-An Analysis to Improve Controllability

1987-10-01
871919
It is well known and a common experience among drivers that controllability and stability of a car-trailer combination is affected when an articulated Heavy Goods Vehicle overtakes. In this paper, aerodynamic effects to a car-trailer combination when it is overtaken by an articulated HGV, have been analyzed experimentally using 1/20 scale models in wind tunnel, and a method to suppress this phenomenon has been investigated. The dynamic behaivor of a car-trailer combination is simulated by a simple mathematical model. The result shows that a car-trailer combination can be stable following the addittion of aerodynamic devices to each side of the vehicle. This simulated result is verified by the on-read test.
Technical Paper

Alert Method for Rear Cross Traffic Alert System in North America

2013-04-08
2013-01-0732
In recent years, a number of different Blind Spot Monitor (BSM) systems have become more and more popular in North American automotive market. The BSM system advises the driver of vehicles travelling in adjacent lanes when these vehicles are also in the driver's outside rearview mirror blind spots. Similarly, when the vehicle is backing up from a parking spot, cross-traffic vehicles can be in the driver's outside mirror blind spots. In this situation, the Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system alerts the driver when the driver shifts the vehicle in the reverse gear and there are approaching cross-traffic vehicles. The benefits of RCTA system was presented by [1]. The RCTA alert studied in this paper is given by playing an audible sound and by flashing the outside mirror indicators. The RCTA and BSM systems share the same vehicle sensors and most of their vehicle components.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Multiplexing System for Automotive Distributed Control

1991-02-01
910718
On board multiplexing communication system is regarded as a necessary technology for the future of electronic system in automobiles. Many companies are developing multiplexing systems and the ISO and SAE are active in establishing standards for communication protocols. The proposed communication protocol specifications have different specifications. Consequently, no compatible evaluation standards existed, and it was difficult to compare one protocol to another. Therefore, to assist the standardization activities of the IS0 and SAE, we have developed an evaluation method for distributed multiplexed communication systems and evaluated each of the proposed protocols using this method. These evaluations were performed from the point of view of the future users of these systems. In this paper we present the results of the experiments on distributed multiplexed communication systems each of which consists of communication IC and the proposed physical layer.
Journal Article

Analysis of Driver Kinematics and Lower Thoracic Spine Injury in World Endurance Championship Race Cars during Frontal Impacts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1432
This study used finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the injury mechanisms of driver spine fracture during frontal crashes in the World Endurance Championship (WEC) series and possible countermeasures are suggested to help reduce spine fracture risk. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to a driver, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver chest moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the leg hump. The simulation predicted spine fracture at T11 and T12. It was found that a combination of axial compression force and bending moment at the spine caused the fractures. The axial compression force and bending moment were generated by the shoulder belt down force as the driver’s chest moved forward.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Stability After Releasing the Accelerator in a Turn

2005-04-11
2005-01-0411
Vehicle stability after releasing the accelerator during limit cornering (from now on “Tuck-in”) is the behavior that the turning radius of a vehicle gets smaller after releasing the accelerator. This paper presents that the main factors of yaw moment variation by releasing the accelerator are the change of lateral forces due to longitudinal transfer of normal loads, lateral shift of vehicle center of gravity due to vehicle roll and tire lateral deflection, and the change of lateral forces due to deceleration. It also shows that roll stiffness distribution and longitudinal acceleration have an influence through the formulation of turning radius ratio.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1983
Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Body Electronics Area Network (BEAN)

1997-02-24
970297
This paper describes the multiplex communication protocol, BEAN (Body Electronics Area Network), developed for body control system on passenger cars which in recent years has increased the scope of multiplex communication. BEAN is based on a protocol developed in 1992 (SAE920231) but expands upon the performance in areas, such as the suitability of the ID system for increase of ECUs, the variable data length enabling the transmission of diagnostic data, and the transmission rate, while keeping the cost and radiation noise level low. The software size of BEAN is compact enough to be implemented by general purpose 8bit MCUs which have recently seen improvements in performance. The BEAN communication devices are available corresponding to the scale of the application and configuration of the ECU taking into account the software capability. This protocol was evaluated using simulation with the body control system on luxury passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Analysis System for Noise and Vibration on Vehicles

1983-02-01
830344
An analysis system for vehicle noise and vibration has been developed. It consists of minicomputer based analog processing system connected with a large main-frame computer. This system features multi-modes for data analysis, fast data processing, data compatibility with conventional analog systems and feasibility. Fast data processing was achieved by newly developed FFT processor and minicomputer software. A new remote control box makes it simple to operate. Data processed by the minicomputer can be transferred to a large mainframe computer for further analysis.
Technical Paper

Control System Development with Large Flow Small Linear Solenoid for the New Toyota FWD 6-Speed Transaxle

2006-04-03
2006-01-1487
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 6-speed automatic transmission (U660E) for the front-wheel drive vehicles and large displacement engines. The U660 E was adapted to achieve improved environmental protection, and meet safety standards, which are large concerns for the society and customer satisfaction, by being small, light, highly efficient, quick response, and high shift quality. Toyota fundamentally improved both the hardware and software of the control system to meet these important goals.
Journal Article

Decoupled 3D Moment Control for Vehicle Motion Using In-Wheel Motors

2013-04-08
2013-01-0679
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of 2-Liter 6-Cylinder Gasoline Engines, Toyota 1G Engine Series

1987-10-01
871976
1G engine series consists of four types of 2-liter, in-line, 6-cylinder gasoline engines for passenger cars, with different performance characteristics to meet diversified market demands. These engines are already put into mass production. The original engine - 1G-EU - is a compact and light weight 2-valve OHC engine with the maximum power 77 kW/5200 rpm. The 1G-GEU is a 4-valve DOHC engine developed on the basis of the 1G-EU engine, with a higher performance and a higher power of 103 kW/6200 rpm. The 1G-GZEU is a mechanical supercharging type engine based on the 1G-GEU, with a remarkably improved performance in the low and medium engine speed ranges, and the highest power of 110 kW/6000 rpm. The 1G-GTEI! is a turbocharging type engine also based on the 1G-GEU, with a markedly improved performance in the medium and high speed ranges, and the high power of 136 kW/6200 rpm. A number of new technologies were introduced on development of these engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Bearing with Composite Overlay for High-Performance Engines

1996-02-01
960988
Recently, there has been a tendency of high power and high speed in automotive engines. In addition they have been also required high reliability. And engine bearings have been required to be advanced in wear resistance as well as seizure resistance. Therefore, copper-lead alloy bearings with overlay, which have better seizure resistance, have been widely used for high speed engines up to the present. But it becomes very important for them to advance the overlay wear resistance. In this paper, the composite overlay is mainly researched to improve wear resistance regarding kind of hard particles and their amounts in the overlay.
Technical Paper

Development of Electronic Compass for Automobile, Using Magnetoresistive Elements

1993-03-01
930551
These days, a variety of navigation systems have been developed to provide the driver with necessary information such as vehicle location, direction and destination. An electronic compass is being widely used as a component for such navigation systems (1), (2) and (3). Compared with a conventional magnetic compass, an electronic compass has the following advantages: 1. High vibration durability and quick response. 2. Easy to calibrate and reliable. 3. Sensor and display units can be separated. The electronic compass, however, is accompanied by two serious subjects: the development of a sensitive geomagnetic sensor, and calibration of direction error due to an unexpectedly magnetized vehicle body. First, we developed a new geomagnetic sensor utilizing magnetoresistive elements (MRE) and magnetic lenses. Next, we clarified the magnetic disturbances and defined the mechanism of vehicle magnetization, thereby establishing a simple calibration technique for such magnetization.
Technical Paper

Development of Exhaust Manifold Muffler

1993-03-01
930625
The muffler layout in the exhaust system has been optimized for the attenuation of exhaust noise which has not been studied much to this date. As a result, “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” has been developed. This unit is capable of efficiently muffling the primary and secondary componemts of the engine explosion stroke noise. Such task is achieved without deterioration of engine performance by allocating the volume at the junction of the exhaust manifold branch pipes. Acoustic characteristics of “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” have been analyzed by FEM and experimental methods, which have shown that not only does the volume placed at the junction of the exhaust manifold branch pipes work as a conventional muffler, but also prevents the exhaust manifold branch pipes from amplifying exhaust noise. This is the reason why “Exhaust Manifold Muffler” can muffle more efficiently than the conventional muffler.
Technical Paper

Development of Hologram Head-Up Display

1992-02-01
920600
Instrument clusters used in automobiles play an important role as man-machine interface. A variety of information about the current driving situation is conveyed to the driver quickly and accurately. A great interest has been taken in the high visibility and legibility of the head-up display (subsequently abbreviated as HUD). Originally developed as display used in aeronautical applications, we have tried to exploit ways to adapt this device for automotive use. We have succeeded to produce a new HUD system, which has the following design features; (1) High brightness and high contrast display device using a liquid crystal display (subsequently abbreviated as LCD) and a halogen lamp illumination. (2) Long focus display in two colors using holographic lens. (3) Automatic dimming control system using an illuminance sensor. (see Fig. 1)
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