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Technical Paper

A Multi-Dimensional Numerical Method for Predicting Warm-Up Characteristic of Automobile Catalytic Converter Systems

A multi-dimensional numerical method for predicting the warm-up characteristic of automobile catalytic converter systems was developed to effectively design catalytic converter systems which achieve low tail pipe emissions with satisfactory packagebility. The features of the method are; (1) consideration of the governing phenomena such as gas flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions (2) capability of predicting warm-up characteristic for not only the catalytic converters but also the system as a whole during emission test modes such as the USA LA-4 mode. The description of the method is presented. The experimental verifications of the method were conducted to assure the accuracy of it. The effect of design parameters such as electrically heated catalyst (EHC), high loading of noble metal and thin honeycomb wall on warm-up characteristic of the catalyst are analyzed in the paper.
Journal Article

A New Generation of Optically Accessible Single-Cylinder Engines for High-speed and High-load Combustion Analysis

Over the last few decades, in-cylinder visualization using optically accessible engines has been an important tool in the detailed analysis of the in-cylinder phenomena of internal combustion engines. However, most current optically accessible engines are recognized as being limited in terms of their speed and load, because of the fragility of certain components such as the elongated pistons and transparent windows. To overcome these speed and load limits, we developed a new generation of optically accessible engines which extends the operating range up to speeds of 6000 rpm for the SI engine version, and up to in-cylinder pressures of 20 MPa for the CI engine version. The main reason for the speed limitation is the vibration caused by the inertia force arising from the heavy elongated piston, which increases with the square of the engine speed.
Technical Paper

A New Method to Analyze Fuel Behavior in a Spark Ignition Engine

In SI engines with port injection system, fuel behavior both in the intake port and in the cylinder has significant influence on the transient A/F characteristics and HC emissions [1]. Therefore, to improve the engine performance, it is very important to understand fuel behavior in the intake port and in the cylinder [2, 3]. This paper describes the following three unique methods to analyze fuel behavior in port injected SI engines and some test results. (1) Observation of fuel behavior in the intake port, using a transparent intake air tube and a strobe synchronized TV-photographic system. (2) Observation of fuel behavior in the cylinder, using a glass cylinder and fluorescent fuel. (3) Measurement of fuel wall wetting in the intake port and in the cylinder, using the engine with electronically controlled hydraulically driven in-take/exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

A Newly Developed Intelligent Variable Valve Timing System - Continuously Controlled Cam Phasing as Applied to a New 3 Liter Inline 6 Engine

To meet the requirements for higher horsepower and torque as well as lower fuel consumption and emissions, we have developed a new “Intelligent Variable Valve Timing (VV-i)” system. It gives continuously variable intake cam phasing by up to 60 degrees crank angle (CA) . This system not only increases WOT output by optimizing intake valve closing timing but also reduces fuel consumption and NOx/ HC emissions under part load by increasing intake and exhaust valve overlap on 4 stroke Spark Ignited engines. VVT-i has been applied to optimize a new 3-liter inline 6 engine for higher torque and at the same time better fuel economy with continuous and wide-range cam phasing.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Test Method for Deterioration of FKM Compounds Engine Crankshaft Oil Seals

A laboratory scale simulation test method was developed to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals of fluoroelastomer (FKM) compounds for engine crankshafts. The investigation of the collected radial lip seals of FKM compounds from the field with service up to 450,000km indicated that the only symptom of deterioration is a decrease of lip interference. This deterioration was not duplicated under conventional test conditions using an oil seal test machine because sludge build up at the seal lip caused oil leakage. However, revised test conditions make it possible to duplicate the deterioration experienced in the field. An immersion test using a radial lip seal assembled with the mating shaft was newly developed. This test method was found to be useful to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals using FKM compounds. Oil additives affect the deterioration of lip seal materials significantly. Therefore, immersion tests of four different oils were conducted to evaluate this effect.
Technical Paper

A Study of Additive Effects on ATF Frictional Properties Using New Test Methods

A new test machine has been developed which can evaluate vibration due to stick-slip using an actual full-scale clutch pack. Using this machine, a static breakaway friction coefficient measurement test method and a stick-slip test method have been established. Both methods have been shown to provide results which correlate with the results from both a full-scale assembly test and a vehicle shudder evaluation test. The evaluation of the frictional properties of commercial oils using these test methods showed that the static breakaway friction coefficient and the stick-slip properties have generally contradictory performance to each other for automatic transmission. The study of the frictional properties for typical additives and an analysis of the surface of the steel plates with ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) showed that the frictional properties are significantly affected by the additives adsorbed on the clutch plate sliding surface.
Technical Paper

A Study of Chassis Dynamometers for 4 Wheel Drive Vehicles - Influence of the Front-Rear Rollers Synchronizing System on the Power Distribution

Recently,four-wheel drive vehicle (hereinafter abbreviated as 4WD vehicle) chassis dynamometer has been developed and in the course of practical use for many kinds of test. The 4WD chassis dynamometer technology, however, involves many new requirements and advanced techniques which were not required for conventional chassis dynamometers. This study has described a generation mechanism for driving force distribution through construction of a dynamic model for the resolution of unsolved issues in composite dynamic systems of 4WD vehicle and 4WD chassis dynamometer. Additionally, we have clarified the reasons why driving force distribution on-the-road is different from that on the chassis dynamometer, and clarified that the work value of driving shaft depends upon the combination of chassis dynamometer types and 4WD vehicles types. The micro-slip theory (hereinafter abbreviated as MS theory) utilized for the analysis is the basic theory that can explain that inclinations.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Compression Ratio SI Engine Equipped with a Variable Piston Crank Mechanism for Knocking Mitigation

To avoid knocking phenomena, a special crank mechanism for gasoline engine that allowed the piston to move rapidly near TDC (Top Dead Center) was developed and experimentally demonstrated in the previous study. As a result, knocking was successfully mitigated and indicated thermal efficiency was improved [1],[2],[3],[4]. However, performance of the proposed system was evaluated at only limited operating conditions. In the present study, to investigate the effect of piston movement near TDC on combustion characteristics and indicated thermal efficiency and to clarify the knock mitigation mechanism of the proposed method, experimental studies were carried out using a single cylinder engine with a compression ratio of 13.7 at various engine speeds and loads. The special crank mechanism, which allows piston to move rapidly near TDC developed in the previous study, was applied to the test engine with some modification of tooling accuracy.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of an Overtaking Articulated Heavy Goods Vehicle on Car-Trailer-An Analysis to Improve Controllability

It is well known and a common experience among drivers that controllability and stability of a car-trailer combination is affected when an articulated Heavy Goods Vehicle overtakes. In this paper, aerodynamic effects to a car-trailer combination when it is overtaken by an articulated HGV, have been analyzed experimentally using 1/20 scale models in wind tunnel, and a method to suppress this phenomenon has been investigated. The dynamic behaivor of a car-trailer combination is simulated by a simple mathematical model. The result shows that a car-trailer combination can be stable following the addittion of aerodynamic devices to each side of the vehicle. This simulated result is verified by the on-read test.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Behavior for 4WD Vehicle on 4WD-chassis Dynamometer

Technologies of 4WD chassis dynamometers (CHDY hereinafter) have advanced dramatically over the past several years, enabling 4WD vehicles to be tested without modifying their drive-train into 2WD. These advances have opened the use of 4WD-CHDY in all fuel economy and emission evaluation tests. In this paper, factors that influence the accuracy of fuel economy tests on 4WD CHDY are discussed. Fuel economy tests were conducted on 4WD CHDY and we found that most of the vehicle mechanical loss is the tire loss and that stabilizing the tire loss of the test vehicle is essential for the test reproducibility.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Compositions and Ozone Forming Potential During Cold Start

A newly-developed time resolved exhaust gas analysis system was utilized in this study. The hydrocarbon compositions upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter were investigated during cold start and warm up of the Federal Test Procedure(FTP), with three fuels of different aromatic contents. Although engine-out hydrocarbon emissions had high concentrations right after cold start, the specific reactivity was low. This can be explained by the selective adsorption of the high boiling point components which had a high Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) in the intake manifold and engine-oil films. Thereafter, the high boiling point components were desorbed rapidly and consequently specific reactivity increased. Hydrocarbon adsorption of high boiling point components and hydrocarbon conversion of low boiling point components occurred simultaneously on the catalyst during warm up.
Technical Paper

Anti-Reflection (AR) Coating Meter

So far in conventional automotive meter, reflection of the incident light on a cover glass is prevented by a hood and a curved cover glass. Anti-reflection coating (hereafter abbreviated as AR coating) on the surface of cover glass can offer a meter without the hood. Thin films of AR coating are uniformly deposited on a large polymethylmethacrylate substrate in an ambient atmosphere by sol-gel dip coating and cured at low temperature. The AR coated panel shows a very low reflectance. In addition, the AR coating has a high reliability for the instrument panels of automobiles. The AR coating meter offers new instrument panel design for Toyota Prius.
Technical Paper

Automobile Navigation System Using Individual Communication Beacon

A communication system that uses roadside beacons to broadcast road and traffic information and private messages to vehicles has been developed. The system, called Road/Automobile Communication System (RACS), was the result of a joint research project involving the Public Works Research Institute and 25 private-sector corporations. This paper contains an outline of RACS and of an onboard system developed by TOYOTA and presents the results of field tests conducted in the Tokyo area. The results not only verify the capability of the RACS system and the effectiveness of the in-vehicle equipment but also indicate the potential of such a beacon based network to improve traffic jam and driving safety whilst providing enhanced communication facilities without increasing radio-wave congestion.
Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Flow Around a Simplified Vehicle-Like Body

The flow around a simplified vehicle-like body was computed. The aerodynamic characteristics of this body depended on the afterbody geometry, especially the rear slant angle. In order to examine reliability of computation, the computations were performed for various rear slant angles. Regarding the computational method, two kinds of methods were applied: a Navier-Stokes solver that employs a k- ε turbulence model and a quasi-direct simulation with a third-order upwind difference scheme. Comparing the results with a wind tunnel test data of the flow fields and aerodynamic forces, it was found that, the k- ε model had potential for prediction of flow field and the quasi-direct simulation for prediction of aerodynamic forces.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Technical Paper

Development and Practicing of Automatic Fluorescent Magnetic Particles Inspection

The fluorescent magnetic particle inspection is widely used as a visual inspection method for checking cracks generated in hardening and grinding of induction-hardened parts. However, automation of this inspection process has strongly been demanded, due to poor environmental conditions and production line speed. To satisfy such a demand, we have developed a method for picking up images of automotive parts with higher S/N ratio and an original algorithm for image processing which helps measure cracks accurately without being affected by the illuminance and magnetic particle solution concentration. Then we selected the front axle shaft as the object to study practical use and have solved various technical problems in actual use, thereby succeeding in actual application to our production lines.
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Valve Seats Directly Deposited onto Aluminum Cylinder Head by Laser Cladding Process

A new technologies for manufacturing of engine valve seats have been developed. This process, different from the conventional method that valve seats made of sintered alloy were press-fit into the cylinder head, is directly formed valve seats onto cylinder head by using the laser cladding technique. In order to develope the cylinder head with laser cladding valve seats, the laser cladding technology by which copper based alloy is deposited onto aluminum alloy with little dilution and stable bead has been established. And the unique cladding alloy, which is two phases in the liquid stage and in which iron or molybdenum rich hard particles are dispersed in the solid state, has been developed. Based on this technique, the practical process has been successfully completed.
Journal Article

Development of Full-Scale Wind Tunnel for Enhancement of Vehicle Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic Performance

A new wind tunnel was developed and adopted by Toyota Motor Corporation in March 2013. This wind tunnel is equipped with a 5-belt rolling road system with a platform balance that enables the flow simulation under the floor and around the tires in on-road conditions. It also minimizes the characteristic pulsation that occurs in wind tunnels to enable the evaluation of unsteady aerodynamic performance aspects. This paper describes the technology developed for this new wind tunnel and its performance verification results. In addition, after verifying the stand-alone performance of the wind tunnel, a vehicle was placed in the tunnel to verify the utility of the wind tunnel performance. Tests simulated flow fields around the vehicle in on-road conditions and confirmed that the wind tunnel is capable of evaluating unsteady flows.
Technical Paper

Development of Hologram Head-Up Display

Instrument clusters used in automobiles play an important role as man-machine interface. A variety of information about the current driving situation is conveyed to the driver quickly and accurately. A great interest has been taken in the high visibility and legibility of the head-up display (subsequently abbreviated as HUD). Originally developed as display used in aeronautical applications, we have tried to exploit ways to adapt this device for automotive use. We have succeeded to produce a new HUD system, which has the following design features; (1) High brightness and high contrast display device using a liquid crystal display (subsequently abbreviated as LCD) and a halogen lamp illumination. (2) Long focus display in two colors using holographic lens. (3) Automatic dimming control system using an illuminance sensor. (see Fig. 1)