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Technical Paper

A Simulation Method of Rear Axle Gear Noise

1991-05-01
911041
A new experimental method, that enables to estimate the body and driveline sensitivity to unit transmitting error of a hypoid gear for automotive rear axle gear noise, has been developed. Measurements were made by exciting the tooth of the drive-pinion gear and that of the ring gear separately using the special devices designed with regard to simulation of acceleration and deceleration. The characteristic of this method is to estimate the forces at the contact point of the gears. Estimation of these forces is carried out under the condition that the higher stiffness is provided by the tooth of the drive-pinion gear and that of the ring gear, compared with the stiffness of the driveshafts and that of the propeller shaft etc., and relative angular displacement of the torsional vibration between the teeth of the drive-pinion gear and those of the ring gear is constant.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational-Angle Difference Between Gears for Gear Noise Under Transient State Using Hilbert Transform

2005-04-11
2005-01-1832
The authors developed a useful analysis method of the rotational-angle of gear under transient state using the Hilbert Transform because the conventional method was not available under the transient state. Here, under the transient state the gear revolution speed was changed from 600r/min to 2000r/min in 0.35 seconds. A key technology of this method was that Hilbert Transform method, which used to be applicable only for steady data was improved so that it could treat transient data. Hence, the following procedures were developed. 1. The rotation of gear-teeth was detected by a gap-sensor pair, which can cancel the measuring error due to fluctuation of gear shaft. 2. The frequency of such signals varied significantly by the gear-revolution speed. Transient gear-teeth detection signals obtained at a constant sampling rate were converted to almost-constant frequency signals over the data series axis using a trigger pulse obtained per gear revolution.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Stability After Releasing the Accelerator in a Turn

2005-04-11
2005-01-0411
Vehicle stability after releasing the accelerator during limit cornering (from now on “Tuck-in”) is the behavior that the turning radius of a vehicle gets smaller after releasing the accelerator. This paper presents that the main factors of yaw moment variation by releasing the accelerator are the change of lateral forces due to longitudinal transfer of normal loads, lateral shift of vehicle center of gravity due to vehicle roll and tire lateral deflection, and the change of lateral forces due to deceleration. It also shows that roll stiffness distribution and longitudinal acceleration have an influence through the formulation of turning radius ratio.
Technical Paper

Application of Dynamic Mode Decomposition to Influence the Driving Stability of Road Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0653
The recent growth of available computational resources has enabled the automotive industry to utilize unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their product development on a regular basis. Over the past years, it has been confirmed that unsteady CFD can accurately simulate the transient flow field around complex geometries. Concerning the aerodynamic properties of road vehicles, the detailed analysis of the transient flow field can help to improve the driving stability. Until now, however, there haven’t been many investigations that successfully identified a specific transient phenomenon from a simulated flow field corresponding to driving stability. This is because the unsteady flow field around a vehicle consists of various time and length scales and is therefore too complex to be analyzed with the same strategies as for steady state results.
Technical Paper

Automobile Navigation System Using Individual Communication Beacon

1991-10-01
912758
A communication system that uses roadside beacons to broadcast road and traffic information and private messages to vehicles has been developed. The system, called Road/Automobile Communication System (RACS), was the result of a joint research project involving the Public Works Research Institute and 25 private-sector corporations. This paper contains an outline of RACS and of an onboard system developed by TOYOTA and presents the results of field tests conducted in the Tokyo area. The results not only verify the capability of the RACS system and the effectiveness of the in-vehicle equipment but also indicate the potential of such a beacon based network to improve traffic jam and driving safety whilst providing enhanced communication facilities without increasing radio-wave congestion.
Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1026
In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Simulation for Low-Frequency Boom Noise and Ride Comfort

1990-09-01
901753
This paper investigates a new approach to the quantification technique for road induced vehicle interior noise and vibration within the frequency range up to 40 Hz. By employing the least squares method, both vertical and fore-aft load to each wheel were quantified using transfer function and actual vibration response of the vehicle driven on a road. The coupled structural-acoustic vehicle model using the finite element method, which is also detailed in this paper, is combined with the quantified input load to simulate road induced interior noise and vibration response. Experimental verification, which indicates reasonable accuracy of the simulation, and an application for the prototype development are also presented.
Journal Article

Development of HEV Engine Start-Shock Prediction Technique Combining Motor Generator System Control and Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) Models

2013-05-13
2013-01-2007
Previous reports have already described the details of engine start-shock and the mechanism of vibration mechanism in a stationary vehicle. This vibration can be reduced by optimized engine and motor generator vibration-reduction controls. A prediction method using a full-vehicle MBD model has also been developed and applied in actual vehicle development. This paper describes the outline of a new method for the hybrid system of mechanical power split device with two motors that predicts engine start-shock when the vehicle is accelerating while the engine is stopped. It also describes the results of mechanism analysis and component contribution analysis. This method targets engine start-shock caused by driving torque demand during acceleration after vehicle take-off. The hybrid control system is modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. A power management and motor generator control program used in actual vehicles is installed into the main part of the control system model.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for SUV

2005-04-11
2005-01-0273
Toyota Hybrid System (THS), that combines a gasoline engine and an electric motor was installed in the Prius, which was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car, and was vastly improved in 2003. The new Prius gained a status of highly innovative and practical vehicle. In 2005, combined with a V6 engine, THS had a further evolution as a Hybrid System for SUV, which was installed in the RX400h and Highlander Hybrid to be introduced into the world. This report will explain “new THS” which achieved both V8 engine power performance and compact class fuel economy, while securing the most stringent emission standard, SULEV.
Technical Paper

Development of In-cylinder Mixture and Flame Propagation Distribution Measurement Device with Spark Plug Type Sensor

2011-08-30
2011-01-2045
A new method to measure in-cylinder flame propagation and mixture distribution has been developed. The distribution is derived from analyzing the temporal history of flame spectra of CH* and C2*, which are detected by a spark plug type sensor with multi-optical fibers. The validity of this method was confirmed by verifying that the measurement results corresponded with the results of high speed flame visualization and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement. This method was also applied to analysis of cyclic combustion fluctuation on start-up in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, and its applicability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

2001-03-05
2001-01-1201
In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of Torsion Beam Rear Suspension with Toe Control Links

1999-03-01
1999-01-0045
Attaining optimum balance between longitudinal compliance and sideforce compliance steer in a torsion beam suspension system is a challenging task. We developed a suspension in which the longitudinal compliance is almost doubled and the side force compliance steer amount is improved by using the link effect of toe control links. This suspension system has been developed to realize excellent controllability, stability, riding comfort, and road noise performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Hybrid Transmission for FWD Sports Utility Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0272
1 A new hybrid transmission (P310) has been developed for FWD 3-liter engine class sports utility vehicles. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving power performance and fuel economy, achieving the world's top-level weight reduction and compact size, while maintaining high torque capacity. In order to achieve these goals, the gear train and motor have been newly designed, and advanced technology has been applied. Moreover, this hybrid transmission achieves seamless acceleration and quiet performance. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction on Rough Road Using Full Vehicle Co-simulation Model with Suspension Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0952
A full vehicle multi-body dynamic (MBD) model with suspension control system is developed for fatigue life prediction under rough road condition. The model consists of tires, a trimmed body, heavy attached parts, powertrain, suspension, joints, and a driver model, and includes a suspension control system that varies characteristics of the suspension according to the rough road inputs. For tires, a commercial MBD tire model is employed with identifiable parameters. The models are simulated to run on the optically measured road surface of the proving ground. Apart from the trimmed body, several important heavy attached parts are modeled separately, that represent dynamic behavior that induces complex body input load. These parts, along with suspension and powertrain systems are connected to the body using nonlinear elements such as joints, springs, and dampers. Contact conditions are used to represent mount bushing, hood lock, stopper rubber, etc.
Technical Paper

Future Automotive Technical Trends

1988-03-01
871155
This paper provides an overview of the automotive technology and its future trends mainly focussing on Japan. The future automotive technology will basically be on the projection of current technology, although it is expected more progress to be made in advanced and precision control systems. The application of electronics and development of new materials will play a very important role in this area.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Continuously Controlled Damper

1992-02-01
920276
The object of this study is to investigate the possibility of improving ride comfort, and develop a new damping control system. We supposed and analyzed the ideal damping control for vehicle suspension system using optimal control strategy. The parameter study shows the effect of reducing vehicle acceleration from road excitation. To achieve the same performance with a more simple and lower cost control strategy, we introduce another control strategy called ‘Skyhook model’ proposed by D.Karnopp. Continuously damping control system is developed based on this to avoid some problems that might be caused in the case of a two-stage switching system. Further more, variable control gain depends on vehicle vibration circumstances introduced to realize the adaptation of various road conditions. Using computer simulation and testing the experimental vehicle, effectiveness of this system is evident and the possibility of ride comfort improvement is verified by using this control.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Preview Vehicle-Suspension System

1992-02-01
920277
The adaptation of an active control suspension has remarkably improved the vehicle attitude and ride comfort characteristics. Such an active controlled suspension is controlled by actuators and hydro-dynamic equipments like servo valves. The control strategies are composed of feedback control with each cylinder oil pressure, suspension stroke and velocity. In the practical application of these systems, it must be taken into account that the effect of control is much dependent on the time delay of a controller as well as control elements. The object of this study is to confirm preview effects on the response of the system. The aim of preview feedforward control is to compensate the system delay of active control suspension. The control system is constructed of an ordinary feedback loop and a feedforward loop based on a road preview signal.
Technical Paper

Joint PAJ/JAMA Project - Development of a JASO Gasoline Bench Engine Test for Measuring CCDs

1997-10-01
972837
Detergent additives in automotive gasoline fuel are mainly designed to reduce deposit formation on intake valves and fuel injectors, but it has been reported that some additives may contribute to CCD formation. Therefore, a standardized bench engine test method for CCDs needs to be developed in response to industry demands. Cooperative research between the Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA), has led to the development of a 2.2L Honda engine dynamometer-based CCD test procedure to evaluate CCDs from fuel additives. Ten automobile manufacturers, nine petroleum companies and the Petroleum Energy Center joined the project, which underwent PAJ-JAMA round robin testing. This paper describes the CCD test development activities, which include the selection of an engine and the determination of the optimum test conditions and other test criteria.
Technical Paper

New TOYOTA 4.8L V10 Petrol High Performance Engine for Lexus LFA

2011-08-30
2011-01-2024
Achieving the speed and performance of a true supercar was merely the starting point of this development. In addition, the development also focused on achieving emotive performance attributes to enhance driver appeal. For this the engine was developed to assist a vehicle handling provides unsurpassed response, the creating a feeling of infinite acceleration potential, response is instantaneous and based on close understanding of driver's reactions and Awe inspiring sound is providing. It meets the latest emission standard Euro V and achieves good fuel consumption with a wide range stoechiometric air fuel ratio, till speeds up to 240km/h.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation of Exciting Engine Sound in Passenger Compartment During Acceleration

2000-03-06
2000-01-0177
This paper describes an objective evaluation method for the engine sound quality in a car interior during acceleration. Two principal factors, pleasantness and raciness, of the engine sound quality were found with a subjective evaluation test in a laboratory. Psycho-acoustic indexes corresponding to these factors were revealed by investigating the correlation among subjective ratings and acoustic characteristics. The index of raciness was originally proposed for the assessment of sound that makes driving fun when the sound is emphasized. We propose that the design of engine sound is required with consideration of the balance between pleasantness and raciness.
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