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Technical Paper

A Simulation Test Method for Deterioration of FKM Compounds Engine Crankshaft Oil Seals

A laboratory scale simulation test method was developed to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals of fluoroelastomer (FKM) compounds for engine crankshafts. The investigation of the collected radial lip seals of FKM compounds from the field with service up to 450,000km indicated that the only symptom of deterioration is a decrease of lip interference. This deterioration was not duplicated under conventional test conditions using an oil seal test machine because sludge build up at the seal lip caused oil leakage. However, revised test conditions make it possible to duplicate the deterioration experienced in the field. An immersion test using a radial lip seal assembled with the mating shaft was newly developed. This test method was found to be useful to evaluate deterioration of radial lip seals using FKM compounds. Oil additives affect the deterioration of lip seal materials significantly. Therefore, immersion tests of four different oils were conducted to evaluate this effect.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational-Angle Difference Between Gears for Gear Noise Under Transient State Using Hilbert Transform

The authors developed a useful analysis method of the rotational-angle of gear under transient state using the Hilbert Transform because the conventional method was not available under the transient state. Here, under the transient state the gear revolution speed was changed from 600r/min to 2000r/min in 0.35 seconds. A key technology of this method was that Hilbert Transform method, which used to be applicable only for steady data was improved so that it could treat transient data. Hence, the following procedures were developed. 1. The rotation of gear-teeth was detected by a gap-sensor pair, which can cancel the measuring error due to fluctuation of gear shaft. 2. The frequency of such signals varied significantly by the gear-revolution speed. Transient gear-teeth detection signals obtained at a constant sampling rate were converted to almost-constant frequency signals over the data series axis using a trigger pulse obtained per gear revolution.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sintered Silicon Nitride Grinding Damage

Sintered silicon nitride, particularly in structural ceramics, has superior properties such as low weight, heat resistance, wear resistance, etc. It is already being applied to automobile engine parts such as the swirl chamber and the turbine rotor. In recent years, the strength of silicon nitride has shown to be above 1000MPa. This has been achieved through advances in manufacturing technology such as materials powder, forming, sintering and so on. But the silicon nitride is easily damaged during grinding because it has less fracture toughness than metal. Consequently, the inherent strength of the material is not demonstrated in the actual products presently produced. It is assumed that the main cause of strength reduction is microcrack. In ordinary grinding methods, the length of microcrack has been estimated at approximately twenty micrometers by fracture mechanics analysis.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Mechanism of ATF Additives at Slip-Controlled Lock-Up Clutch

The anti-shudder effect of ATF additives and their mechanisms have been investigated. Anti-shudder durability was evaluated using an automatic transmission (AT) on an engine stand under continuously slip-controlled condition. The addition of over-based Ca-sulfonate and friction modifier (FM) remarkably improved the anti-shudder durability of ATF. The surface roughness of the contact area (contact area roughness) of the clutch plates was measured by an electron probe surface roughness analyzer. To evaluate the boundary frictional properties of the adsorbed film formed, the friction coefficient of the clutch plates in the absence of oil was examined after the anti-shudder durability test. It was found that shudder occurrence was strongly correlated with the contact area roughness and the boundary frictional property of the steel plate surface. Large contact area roughness and low boundary friction were preferred to prevent shudder.
Technical Paper

Development of Bearing with Composite Overlay for High-Performance Engines

Recently, there has been a tendency of high power and high speed in automotive engines. In addition they have been also required high reliability. And engine bearings have been required to be advanced in wear resistance as well as seizure resistance. Therefore, copper-lead alloy bearings with overlay, which have better seizure resistance, have been widely used for high speed engines up to the present. But it becomes very important for them to advance the overlay wear resistance. In this paper, the composite overlay is mainly researched to improve wear resistance regarding kind of hard particles and their amounts in the overlay.
Journal Article

Development of Di-Air - A New Diesel deNOx System by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants

An unprecedented phenomenon that achieves high NOx conversion was found over an NSR catalyst. This phenomenon occurs when continuous short cycle injections of hydrocarbons (HCs) are supplied at a predetermined concentration in lean conditions. Furthermore, this phenomenon has a wider range of applicability for different catalyst temperatures (up to 800 degrees Celsius) and SVs, and for extending thermal and sulfur durability than a conventional NOx storage and reduction system. This paper analyzes the reaction mechanism and concludes it to be highly active HC-deNOx by intermediates generated from adsorbed NOx over the base catalysts and HCs partially oxidized by oscillated HC injection. Subsequently, a high performance deNOx system named Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) was demonstrated that applies this concept to high speed driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of Electronic Compass for Automobile, Using Magnetoresistive Elements

These days, a variety of navigation systems have been developed to provide the driver with necessary information such as vehicle location, direction and destination. An electronic compass is being widely used as a component for such navigation systems (1), (2) and (3). Compared with a conventional magnetic compass, an electronic compass has the following advantages: 1. High vibration durability and quick response. 2. Easy to calibrate and reliable. 3. Sensor and display units can be separated. The electronic compass, however, is accompanied by two serious subjects: the development of a sensitive geomagnetic sensor, and calibration of direction error due to an unexpectedly magnetized vehicle body. First, we developed a new geomagnetic sensor utilizing magnetoresistive elements (MRE) and magnetic lenses. Next, we clarified the magnetic disturbances and defined the mechanism of vehicle magnetization, thereby establishing a simple calibration technique for such magnetization.
Technical Paper

Development of Multiplex Wiring System with Optical Data Link for Automobiles

This paper contains an explanation of a Multiplex Wiring System with Optical Data-Link for cars, which has been installed in the Toyota “Century” since 1982. In this system, a total of 64 signals related to door wiring are transmitted in a multiplex fashion, and the number of wires from the front right-hand door to the interior could be reduced from 46 wires, which were used with conventional wiring techniques, to 10 wires including 2 plastic optical fibers. This system also has various control functions which includes a door-lock control function. In order to give high reliability to this system, we have developed a new optical data-link as well as a new custom micro-computer. And in the automobile industry, such a large scale multiplex wiring system having high reliability is very innovative in our opinion and will surely have a large impact in the future.
Technical Paper

Development of New Automatic Transmission Fluid for Fuel Economy

It is important to reduce the viscosity of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) in order to improve fuel economy. However, in general, low viscosity fluid can cause metal fatigue, wear, and seizure. It is necessary to increase the viscosity of the fluid at higher temperatures to maintain the durability of the automatic transmission (AT). The key point is the selection of the base oil and the viscosity index improver (VII) with both a high viscosity index (VI) and excellent shear stability. On the basis of this concept, a new generation high performance ATF named WS was developed. WS can achieve the highest level of fuel economy, while maintaining the durability of the AT.
Technical Paper

Development of New Manual Transmission Gear Oil for Fuel Economy

We developed a new Manual Transmission Gear Oil (MTF) named LV for improved fuel economy and CO2 reduction. MTF LV is a low viscosity fluid to reduce stir losses at lower temperatures. In general, low viscosity fluids can cause metal fatigue, wear and seizure. The MTF LV was designed to overcome these problems by maintaining the oil film thickness after it is deteriorated and improving the wear characteristics with additives. As a result, the MTF LV provides equal or better durability than the current MTF. In addition, it also has good performance at low temperatures, better shift feeling characteristics, and improved oxidation stability.
Technical Paper

Development of P/M Titanium Engine Valves

In October 1998, a new mass-produced car with titanium engine-valves was released from TOYOTA Motor Corporation. Both intake and exhaust valves were manufactured via a newly developed cost-effective P/M forging process. Furthermore, the material which was specially designed for the exhaust one is a unique titanium metal matrix composite (MMC). This paper discusses the materials and manufacturing methods used. The tensile, fatigue strength and creep resistance of the MMC are always superior to those for the typical heat-resistant steel of 21-4N. Both valves have achieved sufficient durability and reliability with a manufacturing cost acceptable for mass-produced automobile parts.
Technical Paper

Development of Self-Contained Hydraulic Valve Lifter

The conventional hydraulic valve lifters, which eliminate the valve clearance adjustment, normally use the pressurized engine lubricant for the working fluid. We have developed a quite new type lifter, named “self-contained hydraulic valve lifter”, which possesses the working fluid in itself. Because the new type lifter is independent of the pressurized engine lubricant, it has some advantages, especially that it can be applied to the existing engine using the mechanical valve gear without almost any engine modifications. And we have confirmed that the self-contained hydraulic valve lifter has good characteristics and reliability and have applied it to the mass production engine (i.e. Toyota 1.3L gasoline engine) for the first time in the world. This paper describes the construction, the characteristics and the reliability of this lifter.
Technical Paper

Development of Technology for Reclaiming Automotive Shredder Residue

Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR), the waste generated by shredding operations in the recycling of metals from scrapped automobiles, is currently disposed of in landfill sites. In Japan, disposal regulations such as leachable lead control have been changed, and moreover landfill sites are getting scarce. Therefore how to control, treat and decrease ASR is a serious matter. This study presents methods for the recycling of automotive shredder residue into automobile components by dry mechanical processing steps. These steps sort the material into several categories accrding to its properties. The material fineness is improved by further, thorough, sorting steps.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermal Resistant Three-Way Catalysts

Automotive catalysts with a good thermal durability have been developed by modifying the composition of additives. The stability of alumina supports against the loss of the surface area depends on the ionic radius and amount of additives. Some lanthanides and alkaline earthes with large ionic radii of 0.11-0. 15nm are most effective. Among these elements, lanthanum improves not only the alumina stability but the catalytic activities of rhodium and cerium oxide. Infrared spectroscopic studies show that lanthanum oxide affects NO adsorbed on Rh to improve the activity for NO reduction. Moreover, lanthanum forms the complex oxide with cerium to improve the activity of cerium oxide. CO pulse reactions on the complex oxide (Ce, La)O2 -x have proved that the oxygen defect in the lattice promotes the diffusion of oxygen atoms to improve the oxide activity.
Technical Paper

Development of Tooth Surface Measuring Machine for Hypoid Gears

A measuring machine was developed for quantifying hypoid gear tooth surfaces with a repeatability of 3μ m. Previous coordinate measuring machines have limited practical application because their measuring speed is too slow and the measurement grid superimposed on the tooth surface does not provide sufficient surface detail. The developed measuring machine can scan dimensions along 29 freely positionable lines in the tooth profile direction (tooth tip to root direction) and 9 freely positionable lines in the tooth trace direction (tooth toe to heel direction). In total, 113 data points per scan line are taken. Highly precise tooth surface information is obtained in approximately half the cycle time of the previous machines. The system is effective for quality control of mass produced hypoid gears, gear noise, strength investigation, quality improvement, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of a Distributed Microcomputer Based Engine Performance Evaluation System

Computer aided systems for performance evaluation of functional devices for passenger cars, such as engines or transmissions, have been applied for ten years. These systems generally consist of a large main frame computer or minicomputers for conducting a large number of complicated analyses. In the past, these computer aided systems were used for vehicle research and development since they were too expensive and sophisticated for use on the production line. Today, microcomputers with mass memory or personal computers are available at very low cost in comparison to conventional minicomputers. With many distributed microcomputers, we have developed a new test and control system for the engine production line. This system consists of (1) a microcomputer with a disk system for test data storage, (2) five personal computers for the man-machine system and data processing, and (3) microcomputers for real time control and data acquistion.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Metal Cylinder Head Gasket

With the recent improvements in automotive engine performance, the operating conditions for the cylinder head gasket are becoming more critical. Today's cylinder head gasket is required not only to ensure high durability, but also to contribute to improving engine performance. This paper introduces a new metal cylinder head gasket consisting of two beaded plates and a thin sheet in-between. Because of the thin sheet, this gasket has several superior characteristics for open decked aluminum cylinder block engines. Sealability and durability were significantly improved.
Technical Paper

High Durability of Metal Support for Automotive Catalyst

A metal support for use in an automotive catalyst is exposed to the severe heat cycle brought about by the intermittent flow of a high temperature exhaust gas. Accordingly, the metal support must have high beat resistance(ex. oxidation resistance) and a rigid structure. Therefore, 20% chromium-5% aluminum ferritic stainless steel(containing small quantities of rare earth metals and titanium) is used as a highly beat resistant honeycomb foil in addition to a highly mechanical durable brazing honeycomb structure. This study examined the durability of a metal honeycomb installed in a gasoline engine. Both an engine bench durability test of a manifold converter type metal support which is connected directly to the exhaust manifold of the gasoline engine and a vehicle durability test of an under the floor type metal support were carried out to evaluate oxidation damage of the metal honeycomb as well as its mechanical durability.
Technical Paper

High-Reliability Low-Cost Gold Plating Connector

The authors developed a high-reliability low-cost gold-plated connector for automobiles. The connector is covered with three plated layers, nickel, palladium-nickel alloy, and gold. The three-layer plating helps to reduce the required thickness of gold. This paper describes the reasons why palladium-nickel plating was adopted and compares the corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and wear resistance of three-layer-plated materials with those of conventional gold-plated materials. In addition, the characterisitics of three-layer-plated connectors were compared with those of conventional gold-plated connectors. It was found that the reliability of three-layer-plated connectors was as high as that of conventional gold-plated connectors.
Technical Paper

International Technical Transfer of Automobile Manufacturing

Automobile production technology has been transferred in the order of "automobile assembly technology", "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology". Transfer of our "automobile assembly technology" has already been nearly 100% completed and, as the manufacture of local parts is promoted and our experiences to undergo model changes are widened, the transfer of "automotive parts manufacturing technology" and "production preparation technology" is making a steady progress. The most critical point that makes the technical transfer difficult is the small automobile markets in developing countries where it is impossible to acquire a sufficient production volume which permits satisfactorily low cost. Various measures to secure a sufficient production volume such as exports and complementation within regions have been taken so far, but any remarkable effect has not been achieved.