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Technical Paper

2-Way Driven Compressor for Hybrid Vehicle Climate Control System

The environment is one of the most important issues currently facing the world and the automobile industry is required to respond with eco-cars. To meet this requirement, the hybrid vehicle is one of the most optimal solutions. The hybrid system automatically stops engine idling (idling stop), or stops the engine during deceleration to recover energy. The engine stop however creates a problem concerning the vehicle's climate control system. Because the conventional climate control system incorporates a compressor driven by engine belt, there is almost no cooling performance while the engine is stopped. Until now, when a driver needed more cooling comfort the engine has been switched back on as a compromise measure. To realize cabin comfort that is consistent with fuel saving, a 2-way driven compressor has been developed that can be driven both by engine belt while the engine is running and by electric motor when the engine is stopped.
Technical Paper

42V Power Control System for Mild Hybrid Vehicle (MHV)

In the 42V Mild Hybrid System introduced into market by Toyota for the first time in the world, the crankshaft using belt(s) drives the motor/generator (MG). The set-up employs an inverter unit to control the MG electronically. This paper describes the system configuration, operations, characteristic features and development results of the new power control system. The focus is on the MG, the inverter-for-MG-control and energy regeneration, as well as DC/DC converter for the power supply to the 14V devices.
Journal Article

A Custom Integrated Circuit with On-chip Current-to-Digital Converters for Active Hydraulic Brake System

This paper presents a custom integrated circuit (IC) on which circuit functions necessary for “Active Hydraulic Brake (AHB) system” are integrated, and its key component, “Current-to-Digital Converter” for solenoid current measurement. The AHB system, which realizes a seamless brake feeling for Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Regenerative Brake Cooperative Control of Hybrid Vehicle, and the custom IC are installed in the 4th-generation Prius released in 2015. In the AHB system, as linear solenoid valves are used for hydraulic brake pressure control, high-resolution and high-speed sensing of solenoid current with ripple components due to pulse width modulation (PWM) is one of the key technologies. The proposed current-to-digital converter directly samples the drain-source voltage of the sensing DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) on the IC, and digitizes it.
Technical Paper

A Java Implementation of Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Fuel Economy Simulation Code Modules

Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a free and open-source tool developed by National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). Among the attractive capabilities of the FASTSim is that it can perform computationally efficient fuel economy simulations of automotive vehicles with reasonable accuracy for standard or arbitrary drive cycles. The modeling capability includes vehicles with various types of powertrains such as: conventional vehicles (CVs), hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). The public version of FASTSim available from NREL is implemented in Excel, which achieves the goal of good accessibility to a broad audience, but has some limitations, including: i) bottleneck in computations when importing arbitrary drive cycles, ii) slower computations in general than other scripting or programming languages, and iii) less portable to integration with other applications and/or other platforms.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mechanism of Engine Idling Rattle Noise in Hybrid Transaxles

Quietness is one of the most important characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle quality. Reduction of the rattle noise caused by the torque fluctuation of an internal combustion engine can contribute to get a customer satisfaction. Toyota Hybrid System(THS) also has same requirement. Especially, the rattle noise during idling may happen discontinuously despite of periodical engine combustion excitation. It is necessary to study the mechanism and reduce the rattle noise. At lower engine torque range, decreasing the torsional damper’s stiffness can improve this condition as the manual transaxle done. However, the rattle noise can occur easily in conditions of relatively large torque spike inputs to the torsional system, such as the engine start/stop function of THS using the motor/generator in the transaxle.
Journal Article

A Study on Optimal Powertrain Sizing of Plugin Hybrid Vehicles for Minimizing Criteria Emissions Associated with Cold Starts

Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have several attractive features in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles (CVs) that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE), PHEVs have better energy efficiency like regular hybrids (HEVs), allow for electrifying an appreciable portion of traveled miles, and have no range anxiety issues like battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). However, in terms of criteria emissions (e.g., NOx, NMOG, HC), it is unclear if PHEVs are any better than HEVs or CVs. Unlike GHG emissions, criteria emissions are not continuously emitted in proportional quantities to fossil fuel consumption. Rather, the amount and type of criteria emissions is a rather complex function of many factors, including type of fuel, ICE temperature, speed and torque, catalyst temperature, as well as the ICE controls (e.g., fuel-to-air ratio, valve and ignition timing).
Technical Paper

An Approach for Compatibility Improvement Based on US Traffic Accident Data

Traffic accidents in the United States were analyzed using FARS and NASS data. When classified according to vehicle body type and collision type, fatalities were most common in the case of (1) passenger car to passenger car frontal impacts, (2) passenger car to passenger car side impacts, (3) passenger car to LTV side impacts, (4) passenger car to truck frontal impacts, and (5) passenger car to LTV frontal impacts. Among these collisions, it was clearly confirmed that the occupants of a passenger car have a strong tendency to suffer injury when “the passenger car has a frontal impact with a heavier passenger car,” “the passenger car has a frontal impact with an LTV/SUV, truck,” and “the passenger car is side impacted by an LTV/SUV,” or the like. These examples should be recognized as clear cases of incompatibility. This paper will describe an approach which aim at improving compatibility. However, around 60% of occupants who suffer fatal injuries are not wearing a seat belt.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Control Based on Estimation of Sporty Driving Intention

The purpose of this research is to develop an automatic shift control method that emulates an experienced driver's manual shift maneuver which enhances driving performance during sporty driving. Driver control maneuvers and vehicle behavior were observed throughout the process of braking, cornering, and accelerating out of a corner on a winding test track. Close correlations were found between driving maneuvers, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, and the selected engine speed. Based on the analysis, an index is proposed for estimating the intention of the driver to drive in a sporty manner. This index consists of the magnitude of acceleration in a friction circle and the maximum longitudinal acceleration restricted by the performance of the power train. An automatic transmission control based on the estimated driving intention was then developed to achieve the necessary and sufficient available force.
Technical Paper

Coasting Technology for Real-World Fuel Economy Improvement of a Hybrid Vehicle

Automobile manufactures need to adopt new technologies to meet global CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission regulations and better fuel efficiency demands from customers. Also, the production cost should be as low as possible for an affordable vehicle. Therefore, it is advantageous for OEMs to develop fuel efficient technologies which can be controlled by software without additional hardware costs. The coasting control is a fuel efficiency improvement technology that can be implemented by the change of vehicle software only. The coasting control is a technology that reduces the driving resistance (Deceleration) when the driver releases the gas pedal. This technology leads to reducing the energy required for the vehicle to drive and results in improving the real-world fuel economy. In an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle, the coasting state is achieved by changing the gear to neutral, and the effect has been discussed and clarified by many previous studies.
Journal Article

Combustion Development to Realize High Thermal Efficiency Engines

Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Design of A Fuel Vapor-containment System (FVS) to Meet Zero Evaporative Emissions Requirements in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Generally Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV's) tend to have difficulty with regard to evaporative emissions because they have less capability of purging canisters compared with that of conventional systems. Toyota has developed a new fuel system that can address this difficulty and enables outstanding performance for the new-generation HEV. The fuel system, called the “Fuel Vapor-containment System (FVS)”, consists of newly developed or redesigned components, such as a high strength fuel tank, a Fuel Vapor-containment Valve (FVV), refueling canister and a purge buffer as well as newly defined controls of the components for the vehicle. The fuel tank is sealed while a vehicle is parked and fuel vapor does not flow into the canister by control of the FVV, except during refueling events. Therefore, HEV's do not have to ensure as much as purge capacity to achieve the necessary lower evaporative requirements.
Journal Article

Development Progress of the Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

Since 1992, Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been working on the development of fuel cell system technology. TMC is designing principal components in-house, including fuel cell stacks, high-pressure hydrogen storage tank systems, and hybrid systems. TMC developed the '02 model TOYOTA FCHV, the world-first market-ready fuel cell vehicle, and started limited lease of the vehicles in 2002. In 2005, TMC developed a new model of TOYOTA FCHV which obtained vehicle type certification in Japan, and is currently available for leasing. TMC has improved the cruising range and cold start/drive capability of the TOYOTA FCHV, and conducted public road tests to evaluate the performance. The improved TOYOTA FCHV successfully traveled from Osaka to Tokyo (approximately 560km, 350 miles) on a single fueling of hydrogen. In addition, the cold weather tests carried out in Hokkaido and North America have verified its starting/driving capability at subfreezing temperatures including -37°C.
Journal Article

Development Solar Charging System of Vehicle

Fuel consumption and CO2 emission regulations for vehicles, such as the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation, motivate renewable energy technologies in the automotive industry. Therefore, the automotive industry is focused on adopting solar charging systems. Some vehicles have adopted solar energy to power the ventilation system, but these vehicles do not use solar energy to power the drivetrain. One important issue facing the design of solar charging systems is the low power generated by solar panels. Compared to solar panels for residential use, solar panels for vehicles can’t generate as much power because of size and weight limitations. Also, the power generated by solar panels can be extremely affected depending on differences in solar radiation among the cells. Therefore, Toyota has developed a solar charging system that can use solar energy for driving the Prius PHV. This system can efficiently charge the hybrid battery with the low power generated by the solar panel.
Technical Paper

Development Strategy for 4th Generation PCU

Toyota Motor Corporation has developed new Hybrid Vehicle (HV) and Plug in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV) from Compact class to Medium class. These vehicles incorporate newly developed hybrid systems for the improvement of fuel efficiency. The feature of these new generation power control unit is smaller, lighter, and higher efficiency than the previous generation. To adapt to various output systems, a development strategy of new generation Power Control Unit (PCU) was established. Based on the strategy, the development efficiency was improved. In this Paper, the strategy is described.
Journal Article

Development of Compact and High-Performance Fuel Cell Stack

Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell (FC) technology since 1992, and finally “MIRAI” was launched in 15th Dec. 2014. An important step was achieved with the release of the “FCHV-adv” in 2008. It established major improvements in efficiency, driving range, durability, and cold start capability. However, enhancing performance and further reductions in size and cost are required to facilitate the commercial widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). TMC met these challenges by developing the world's first FC stack without a humidifying system. This was achieved by the development of an innovative cell flow field structure and membrane electrode assembly (MEA), enabling a compact and high-performance FC stack. Other cost reduction measures incorporated by the FC stack include reducing the amount of platinum in the catalyst by two-thirds and adopting a carbon nano-coating for the separator surface treatment.
Journal Article

Development of Electric Power Control using the Capacitance Characteristics of the Fuel Cell

Cold weather operation has been a major issue for fuel cell vehicles (FCV). In order to counteract this effect on FCV operation, an approach for rapid warm-up operation based on : concentration overvoltage increase and conversion efficiency decrease by limiting oxygen or hydrogen supply, was adopted in a running fuel cell hybrid vehicle. In order to adjust the output power response of the fuel cell to the target power of the vehicle, -the inherent capacitance characteristics of the fuel cell were measured- based on the oxidation-reduction reaction and an electric double-layer capacitor, and an equivalent electric circuit model of a fuel cell with the capacitance was constructed. This equivalent electric circuit model was used to develop a power control algorithm to manage absorption of the surplus power, or deviation, to the capacitance.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle System for City Commuter Vehicle

Recently, automakers have launched various types of electric vehicles (EVs) to help reduce global CO₂ emissions and reduce dependency on fossil fuel energy. Because the lithium-ion batteries that are currently under development are restricted by energy density, the physical size and mass of the battery must be significantly increased to extend the cruising range of the EV. Furthermore, dedicated charging infrastructure is required to charge the battery in a short time. At SAE in 2012, Toyota Motor Corporation proposed a concept that described the EV as suitable mainly for short-distance transportation now and in the near future. Later in the same year, Toyota launched a new EV that embodies this concept in the American and Japanese markets. This new EV is light-weight and has a compact body size, and its battery capacity is designed to sufficiently cover distances traveled in daily life. Charging is assumed to take place mainly at home.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Development of Free Wheeling Diode for High-Power Hybrid Vehicles

To improve the fuel economy and dynamic performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HVs), Toyota Motor Corporation has boosted the voltage of the hybrid system. Increases in system voltage have to be matched by increases in the breakdown voltage of the Free Wheeling Diodes (FWD) in that system. However, using conventional technology to accomplish this causes a temporary decrease in breakdown voltage during switching, leading to increased device losses. It was found that this phenomenon was being caused by the unexpected generation of crystal defects, the reduction of which has enabled device losses to be suppressed. (Reported at ISPSD 2006.)
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle by Toyota -Durability-

Various issues must be resolved before sustainable mobility can be achieved, the most important of which are reacting to energy supply and demand, and lowering CO2 emissions. At present, the fact that the vast majority of vehicles run on conventional oil is regarded as a problem for which Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) is developing various technological solutions. Fuel cell (FC) technology is one of the most promising of these solutions. A fuel cell is an extremely clean device that uses hydrogen and oxygen to generate power without emitting substances like CO2, NOx, or PM during operation. Its energy efficiency is high and it is widely expected to form the basis of the next generation of powertrains. Since 1992, TMC has been working to develop the main components of fuel cell vehicles, including the fuel cell itself, and the high pressure hydrogen tank and hybrid systems.