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Technical Paper

A Study of Mechanism of Engine Idling Rattle Noise in Hybrid Transaxles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0421
Quietness is one of the most important characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle quality. Reduction of the rattle noise caused by the torque fluctuation of an internal combustion engine can contribute to get a customer satisfaction. Toyota Hybrid System(THS) also has same requirement. Especially, the rattle noise during idling may happen discontinuously despite of periodical engine combustion excitation. It is necessary to study the mechanism and reduce the rattle noise. At lower engine torque range, decreasing the torsional damper’s stiffness can improve this condition as the manual transaxle done. However, the rattle noise can occur easily in conditions of relatively large torque spike inputs to the torsional system, such as the engine start/stop function of THS using the motor/generator in the transaxle.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends

2010-10-25
2010-01-2116
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Journal Article

An Application of Model Based Combustion Control to Transient Cycle-by-Cycle Diesel Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1311
From the viewpoint of the global warming restraint, reduction of exhaust emissions from diesel engine is urgent demand. However, it needs further development in combustion control besides after treatment system. Larger amount of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) is effective to reduce NOx emission. On the other hand, in-cylinder physical conditions greatly influence on self-ignition and combustion process, especially low O2 fraction charged gas owing to excessive EGR causes misfire. A drastic solution for this problem, fuel injection timing should be optimally manipulated based on predicted ignition delay period before actual injection. For this purpose, Toyota has developed a model based diesel combustion control concept to avoid the misfire and to keep low emission combustion includes in transient condition.
Journal Article

An Investigation of High Load (Compression Ignition) Operation of the “Naphtha Engine” - a Combustion Strategy for Low Well-to-Wheel CO2 Emissions

2008-06-23
2008-01-1599
A computational and experimental study has been carried out to assess the high load efficiency and emissions potential of a combustion system designed to operate on low octane gasoline (or naphtha). The “naphtha engine” concept utilizes spark ignition at low load, HCCI at intermediate load, and compression ignition at high load; this paper focuses on high load (compression ignition) operation. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder diesel engine with compression ratio of 16 and a common rail injector/fuel delivery system. Three fuels were examined: a light naphtha (RON∼59, CN∼34), heavy naphtha (RON∼66, CN∼31), and heavy naphtha additized with cetane improver (CN∼40). With single fuel injection near top dead center (TDC) (diesel-like combustion), excessive combustion noise is generated as the load increases. This noise limits the maximum power, in agreement with the CFD predictions. The noise-limited maximum power increases somewhat with the use of single pilot injection.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Vibration Caused by Starter Shaft Resonance

2016-04-05
2016-01-1319
It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In our former study, we showed the 1D physical power plant model with electrical starter, battery that can predict combustion transient torque, combustion heat energy and fuel efficiency. The simulation result agreed with measured data. For idling stop system, the noise and vibration during start up is important factor for salability of the vehicle. In this paper, as an application of the 1D physical power plant model (engine model), we will show the result of analysis that is starter shaft resonance and the effect on the engine mount vibration of restarting from idle stop. First, an engine model for 3.5L 6cyl NA engine was developed by energy-based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language registered in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) to realize multi physics on 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of EGR Cyclic Variations in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine by Using Raman Scattering Method

2002-05-06
2002-01-1646
The Raman scattering method has been developed for the simultaneous, cycle by cycle measurement of HC, O2, H2O, and N2 in a direct injection gasoline engine with EGR. By using the Raman scattering method, the effect of EGR on stratified charge combustion can be investigated in a direct injection SI gasoline engine. The results show that (1) at the compression stroke homogeneous EGR gas exists, (2) variation of component mass fraction of EGR (qualitative fluctuation) introduced in the previous combustion cycle is the primary reason for EGR fluctuation, (3) under normal operating conditions, EGR fluctuation (component mass fraction and quantitative fluctuation) doesn't influence on the combustion fluctuation at the stratified charge operation.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2515
The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Unburned Hydrocarbon Generated from Wall under Lean Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0295
Combustion of a lean air-fuel mixture diluted with a large amount of air or Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas is one of the important technologies that can reduce thermal NOx and improve gasoline engine fuel economy by reducing cooling loss. On the other hand, lean combustion increases unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) and unburned loss compared to stoichiometric combustion. This is because lean combustion reduces the burning rate of the air-fuel mixture and forms a thick quenching layer near the wall surface. In this study, the relationship between the thickness of the unburned HC and the excess air ratio is analyzed using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) method and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) of combustion. The HC distribution near the engine liner when the excess air ratio is increased is investigated by LIF. As a result, it is found that the quenching distance of the flame in the cylinder is larger for lean conditions than the general single-wall quenching relationship.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Various Dilution Gases

2007-04-16
2007-01-0126
The effects of intake dilution with various dilution gases including nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide on low temperature diesel combustion were investigated in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine to understand the mechanism of the simultaneous reductions in smoke and NOx with ultra-high EGR. NOx almost completely disappears with the intake oxygen concentration diluted below 16% regardless of the kind of dilution gas. Smoke emissions decrease with increased heat capacity of the charged gas due to promotion of mixture homogeneity with longer ignition delays. Intake dilution with the 36% CO2 + 64% Ar mixture which has a similar specific heat capacity as N2 shows lower smoke emissions than with N2. Chemical kinetics analysis shows that carbon dioxide may help to reduce NOx and soot by lowering the reaction temperature as well as by changing the concentrations of some radicals or/and species related to soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis on Piston Cavity Shape of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2029
This paper describes the analyses to improve both stratified and homogeneous charge combustion of a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and high-speed hydrocarbon (HC) measurement were employed to observe the mixture formation process. The analysis of the combustion flame propagation was conducted by in-cylinder visualization and ion current measurement. As a result of the analyses, the following conclusions were made: 1 An oval shaped wall cavity can direct the mixture gas to the vicinity of the spark plug better than a conventional shell-shaped wall cavity. The oval shaped wall cavity can improve fuel consumption and HC emission at stratified charge combustion. 2 A shallow cavity improves the homogenization of mixture gases and wide open throttle (WOT) performance.
Journal Article

Combustion Development to Realize High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0693
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
Journal Article

Combustion Improvement of Diesel Engine by Alcohol Addition - Investigation of Port Injection Method and Blended Fuel Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0336
Alcohol fuels that can be produced from cellulose continue to become more widely used in gasoline engines. This research investigated the application of alcohol to diesel engines with the aims of improving the combustion of diesel engines and of utilizing alternative fuels. Two methods were compared, a method in which alcohol is injected into the air intake system and a method in which alcohol is blended in advance into the diesel fuel. Alcohol is an oxygenated fuel and so the amount of soot that is emitted is small. Furthermore, blended fuels have characteristics that help promote mixture formation, which can be expected to reduce the amount of soot even more, such as a low cetane number, low viscosity, low surface tension, and a low boiling point. Ethanol has a strong moisture-absorption attribute and separates easily when mixed with diesel fuel. Therefore, 1-butanol was used since it possesses a strong hydrophobic attribute and does not separate easily.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0689
In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Crankshaft Positioning Utilizing Compression Force and Fast Starting with Combustion Assist for Indirect Injection Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1166
Toyota has been continuing to study economy and general-purpose starting technologies for smaller displacement engines, since market introduction of the 42-14V MHV in 2001. This study shows one of the strategies for nearly silent and fast starting for economy size cars, which have smaller displacement engines by utilizing a small MG (motor generator) at 12 Volts. The most significant issue for realizing advanced starting features (silent, fast and smooth) is the cost. Power electric components, especially, have a large cost disadvantage, which is generally proposed to the controlling power. So efforts were made to reduce the electrical power requirements. Also methods for minimizing additional components and utilizing conventionally existing components (e.g. sensors) are discussed in this paper. Another characteristic is that smaller displacement engines (e.g. I4, I3) have larger cranking torque difference characteristics than larger engines (e.g. I6, I8).
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

2006-10-16
2006-01-3386
This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Development of Closed-Loop Robust Control System for Diesel Engines - Combustion Monitoring by Crank Angular Velocity Analysis and its Applications -

2012-04-16
2012-01-1157
Closed-loop robust control system that can monitor combustion state and control it into optimal state using crank angular velocity analysis was established. The system can be constructed without any change of the current hardware. It can avoid engine stall, deterioration of drivability and white smoke emission by misfire after filling low cetane fuels. This study was attempted to grasp the frequency characteristics of crank angular velocity both normal combustion and misfire with FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and Wavelet Transform. FFT used for frequency analysis is generic method to acquire the frequency characteristics of steady oscillation, however is unsuitable for acquiring the frequency characteristics of transient oscillation. Therefore authors adopted Wavelet Transform and succeeded in grasping the phenomenon in misfiring in time sequential.
Technical Paper

Development of Combustion Behavior Analysis Techniques in the Ultra High Engine Speed Range

2007-04-16
2007-01-0643
In order to clarify the combustion behavior in the ultra high engine speed range, a new technique has been developed. This technique is composed of ionization current detection and flame observation, and is highly heat-resistant, vibration-resistant, and has a quick response. From analyzing the flame front propagation in the high-speed research engine, it was found that the flame propagated throughout the entire cylinder over almost the same crank angle period irrespective of engine speed introduction.
Technical Paper

Development of Direct and Fast Response Gas Measurement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0758
Due to regulations for even lower levels of pollutants in exhaust gas, development of advanced combustion techniques and increasingly efficient catalysts has become more crucial than ever. One of the essential technologies to achieve this goal is an advanced measurement method, which can detect the characteristics of exhaust gas, such as temperature and chemical compositions, in real-time to clarify their reaction mechanisms. A direct and fast response (1ms) measurement technique was developed based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy and applied to practical engine exhaust measurement to prove the validity of this technology for various applications such as clarification of engine start phenomena and improvement of EGR controls.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

2017-10-08
2017-01-2431
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
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