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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends

Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Simplification of Thermal Endurance Tests of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts

Our two types of NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalyst have been tested under various conditions of thermal endurance; the performance of these catalysts have been regressed to give the formulas that enable to estimate the performance after thermal endurance; and we have found the method to simplify (shorten the duration of) the thermal endurance tests and that the thermal deterioration of NSR catalysts is controlled by the worst condition of endurance (at least approximately). The regression formula for the amount of potassium that contributes to the catalyst performance (active K) after the endurance has also been obtained. These formulas predict that the amount of active K is the least for the worst condition of endurance and suggest a difference in deterioration mechanism that reflects the performance between low and high temperatures and the portion of worse deterioration (front or rear).
Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vehicle Stability Control's Effectiveness Derived from the Analysis of Traffic Accident Data Statistics

Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) is a system designed to help drivers when skidding or unstable vehicle behavior is about to occur. We have studied the characteristics of VSC in reducing accidents by analyzing accident data statistics in Japan. The results indicate that VSC is effective in reducing single car accidents and head-on collisions with other automobiles. In these accidents, the analysis showed that VSC may be more helpful in reducing a larger number of accidents in the higher speed range where vehicle dynamics plays a greater part. It also showed that VSC may contribute to reducing accidents that result from unstable vehicle behavior. VSC demonstrated more effectiveness in reducing accidents involving lateral & rear impacts than those of frontal impacts, and in reducing accidents on wet & snowy/icy roads than those on dry roads.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst Technology to Lower NOx Emission

One primary result of the reduction of platinum group metals (PGM) within a catalytic converter is the decline in NOx conversion efficiency. This paper hypothesizes that the primary factor of this decline to be hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning. To maintain high NOx conversion efficiency as the PGM reduces, Rh activation improvement becomes significant to overcome the HC poisoning. Analysis of the Rh deterioration mechanism found that it is effective to separately arrange Rh and CeO2 on the converter, avoiding the Rh deactivation. By this improvement, we improved the catalyst activity at less than 25% of the original Rh loading.
Technical Paper

Development of Instantaneous Temperature Measurement Technique for Combustion Chamber Surface and Verification of Temperature Swing Concept

To improve the thermal efficiency of an internal combustion engine, the application of ceramics to heat loss reduction in the cylinders has been studied [1-2]. The approach taken has focused on the low heat conductivity and high heat resistance of the ceramic. However, since the heat capacity of the ceramic is so large, there is a problem in that the wall temperature increases during the combustion cycle. This leads to a decrease in the charging efficiency, as well as knocking in gasoline engines. To overcome these problems, the application of thermal insulation without raising the gas temperature during the intake stroke has been proposed [3-4]. As a means of achieving this, we developed a "temperature swing heat insulation coating" [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. This reduces the heat flux from the combustion chamber into the cooling water by making the wall temperature follow the gas temperature as much as possible during the expansion and exhaust strokes.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Sulfated Ash and Fuel Economy Diesel Engine Oil

A low sulfated ash (S.Ash) DL-1/C2 0W-30 diesel engine oil with improved fuel economy has been developed to meet the PM targets outlined in the Euro 5 emissions standards and to help achieve the voluntary European CO2 target of 140 g/km. The newly developed engine oil is an effective solution to the trilemma (triple probrem) of reliability (high detergency and high anti wear), low S.Ash, and fuel economy, achieving a fuel economy improvement of 2% and reducing CO2 emissions by 3 g/km.
Technical Paper

Development of Pre-Crash Safety System for Heavy Duty Trucks

In fatal accidents due to heavy duty trucks, the fatalities of occupants in passenger cars in which rear-end collision occur account for the largest percent. Collisions to the vehicles in traffic jams and collision to other accidents scenes on express ways can result in serious repercussions. Therefore the system which reduces the damage of collisions has long been demanded and here the world-first Pre-crash Safety (PCS) System for heavy duty trucks was developed. This system gives warning to the driver in case there is a possibility of collision with preceding vehicles, and activates the brakes to mitigate damage in case there is a higher possibility of collision. In order to get the maximum effect on the express ways where the trucks are in high speed, it is necessary to give warning and activate the brakes with relatively early timing.
Technical Paper

Development of Sealing Material Used in the Body Welding Shop

1 The principal characteristics required of sealing materials used in the body shop have focused on their adhesion to oily steel sheets and quick curing performance. Means for attaining these characteristics have been narrowed down to a basic resin system and a curing system. Various techniques have been studied to ensure proper anti-corrosion performance at the sealer application boundaries and thin application areas. They include the addition of anti-corrosion fillers, the provision of conductivity (through electro-deposition), and the application of a micro foam film over the application boundaries. Thus, prospects for attaining the same level of anti-corrosion performance as existing materials have been achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Dummy FE Models using Reverse Engineering

This paper describes the development of dummy FE models to be used for side impact simulations. The precise geometries of the ES-2re dummy and the SID-IIs dummy were measured at a pitch of 1.0 mm using X-ray CT scan. The material properties and the mechanical responses of the components were measured in static and dynamic tests and were used for the model validation. The models were further validated to US-NCAP side impact requirements. Good correlation was seen for both response time history, and to peak deformation values. It is shown that modeling the precise dummy internal structure in addition to the external geometry and applying accurate material properties enabled simulation of deformation kinematics and load transfer inside the dummies. As a result, it was possible to accurately simulate the injury value time histories in an actual test, and understand the mechanisms causing changes to the loading.
Technical Paper

Development of TLP-AI Technology to Realize High Temperature Operation of Power Module

Application of SiC power devices is regarded as a promising means of reducing the power loss of power modules mounted in power control units. Due to those high thermostable characteristics, the power module with SiC power devices are required to have higher operating temperature than the conventional power module with Si power devices. However, the limitations of current packaging technology prevent the utilization of the full potential of SiC power devices. To resolve these issues, the development of device bonding technology is very important. Although transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding is a promising technology for enabling high temperature operation because its bonding layer has a high melting point, the characteristics of the TLP bonding layer tend to damage the power devices. This paper describes the development of a bonding technology to achieve high temperature operation using a stress reduction effect.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact Adsorption Heat Pump System for Automotive Air Conditioning System

In order to reduce the energy consumption of the automotive air conditioning system, adsorption heat pump (AHP) system is one of the key technologies. We have been developing compact AHP system utilizing the exhaust heat from the engine coolant system (80-100 °C), which can meet the requirements in the automotive application. However, AHP systems have not been practically used in automotive applications because of its low volumetric power density of the adsorber. The volumetric power density of the adsorber is proportional to sorption rate, packing density and latent heat. In general, the sorption rate is determined by mass transfer resistance in primary particle of an adsorbent and heat and mass transfer resistance in packed bed. In order to improve the volumetric power density of the adsorber, it is necessary to increase the production of the sorption rate and the packing density.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Valvetrain Wear Test - The Sequence IVB Test

The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
Technical Paper

Examination of Crack Growth Behavior in Induction Hardened Material under Torsional Fatigue

Since wear resistance and fatigue strength are key requirements for chassis components, induction hardening is widely used to apply compressive stress for controlling crack growth. Therefore, it is crucial that the influence of defects is examined with compressive residual stress applied to parts. In this report, the relationship between crack depth and compressive residual stress is evaluated using a cylindrical specimen and a torsional fatigue test. The test results were found to be consistent with CAE simulations performed in advance. In the future, it will be necessary to make this method applicable to product design to further improve vehicle safety performance.
Technical Paper

Experience and Perspective of Hybrids

The Prius, Toyota Motor Corporation’s mass-produced hybrid vehicle (HV), was launched in Japan, other Asian countries, North America and Europe, and has now been accepted into the global market. Following the Prius, the Estima Hybrid and the Crown Mild Hybrid, although being based on different systems were released into the Japanese market in 2001. Over 100,000 Toyota HVs are currently on the road, and this proves that HVs are considered practical and reliable vehicles, not special vehicles. HVs have advantages in fuel economy and exhaust gas emissions compared with conventional ICE vehicles. HVs with differing kinds of hybrid systems will be introduced into the market in the future, and will gain in popularity coexisting with ICE vehicles.
Journal Article

FEM System Development for Dynamic Response Analysis of Acoustic Trim

The multilayer vehicle trim is well known for its effective influence upon noise and vibration characteristics not only in the high-frequency range but also in the low and mid-frequency ranges. FEM technologies which represent the accurate stiffness, mass and damping of trim parts such as the dash silencer and the floor carpet are essential in order to extend current body FEM capability to the road noise and the engine noise issues generated in the mid-frequency range. Conventional modeling methodologies such as local impedance and/or spring-mass modeling that express absorption and insulation properties of acoustic trim contain limitations in the mid-frequency range. There are few reliable FEM technologies to create practical vehicle models that represent the precise characteristics of the trim. In this paper, poroelastic modeling of acoustic multilayer trim was established by employing Biot theory.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Laser Screw Welds in Automotive Structures

This paper describes the development of a fatigue life prediction method for Laser Screw Welding (LSW). Fatigue life prediction is used to assess the durability of automotive structures in the early design stages in order to shorten the vehicle development time. The LSW technology is a spot-type joining method similar to resistance spot welding (RSW), and has been developed and applied to body-inwhite structures in recent years. LSW can join metal panels even when a clearance exists between the panels. However, as a result of this favorable clearance-allowance feature of LSW, a concave shape may occur at the nugget part of the joint. These LSW geometric features, the concavity of nuggets and the clearance between panels, are thought to affect the local stiffness behavior of the joint. Therefore, while assessing the fatigue life of LSW, it is essential to estimate the influence of these factors adequately for the representation of the local stiffness behavior of the joint.