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Technical Paper

A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends

Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vehicle Stability Control's Effectiveness Derived from the Analysis of Traffic Accident Data Statistics

Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) is a system designed to help drivers when skidding or unstable vehicle behavior is about to occur. We have studied the characteristics of VSC in reducing accidents by analyzing accident data statistics in Japan. The results indicate that VSC is effective in reducing single car accidents and head-on collisions with other automobiles. In these accidents, the analysis showed that VSC may be more helpful in reducing a larger number of accidents in the higher speed range where vehicle dynamics plays a greater part. It also showed that VSC may contribute to reducing accidents that result from unstable vehicle behavior. VSC demonstrated more effectiveness in reducing accidents involving lateral & rear impacts than those of frontal impacts, and in reducing accidents on wet & snowy/icy roads than those on dry roads.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of Pre-Crash Safety System for Heavy Duty Trucks

In fatal accidents due to heavy duty trucks, the fatalities of occupants in passenger cars in which rear-end collision occur account for the largest percent. Collisions to the vehicles in traffic jams and collision to other accidents scenes on express ways can result in serious repercussions. Therefore the system which reduces the damage of collisions has long been demanded and here the world-first Pre-crash Safety (PCS) System for heavy duty trucks was developed. This system gives warning to the driver in case there is a possibility of collision with preceding vehicles, and activates the brakes to mitigate damage in case there is a higher possibility of collision. In order to get the maximum effect on the express ways where the trucks are in high speed, it is necessary to give warning and activate the brakes with relatively early timing.
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Dummy FE Models using Reverse Engineering

This paper describes the development of dummy FE models to be used for side impact simulations. The precise geometries of the ES-2re dummy and the SID-IIs dummy were measured at a pitch of 1.0 mm using X-ray CT scan. The material properties and the mechanical responses of the components were measured in static and dynamic tests and were used for the model validation. The models were further validated to US-NCAP side impact requirements. Good correlation was seen for both response time history, and to peak deformation values. It is shown that modeling the precise dummy internal structure in addition to the external geometry and applying accurate material properties enabled simulation of deformation kinematics and load transfer inside the dummies. As a result, it was possible to accurately simulate the injury value time histories in an actual test, and understand the mechanisms causing changes to the loading.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermoplastic CFRP for Stack Frame

Weight reduction for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) is important to contribute a long driving range. One approach to reduce vehicle weight involves using a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) which has a high specific strength and stiffness. However, a conventional thermoset CFRP requires a long chemical reaction time and it is not easy to introduce into mass production vehicles. In this study, a new compression-moldable thermoplastic CFRP material for mass production body structural parts was developed and applied to the stack frame of the Toyota Mirai.
Technical Paper

Experience and Perspective of Hybrids

The Prius, Toyota Motor Corporation’s mass-produced hybrid vehicle (HV), was launched in Japan, other Asian countries, North America and Europe, and has now been accepted into the global market. Following the Prius, the Estima Hybrid and the Crown Mild Hybrid, although being based on different systems were released into the Japanese market in 2001. Over 100,000 Toyota HVs are currently on the road, and this proves that HVs are considered practical and reliable vehicles, not special vehicles. HVs have advantages in fuel economy and exhaust gas emissions compared with conventional ICE vehicles. HVs with differing kinds of hybrid systems will be introduced into the market in the future, and will gain in popularity coexisting with ICE vehicles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Journal Article

FEM System Development for Dynamic Response Analysis of Acoustic Trim

The multilayer vehicle trim is well known for its effective influence upon noise and vibration characteristics not only in the high-frequency range but also in the low and mid-frequency ranges. FEM technologies which represent the accurate stiffness, mass and damping of trim parts such as the dash silencer and the floor carpet are essential in order to extend current body FEM capability to the road noise and the engine noise issues generated in the mid-frequency range. Conventional modeling methodologies such as local impedance and/or spring-mass modeling that express absorption and insulation properties of acoustic trim contain limitations in the mid-frequency range. There are few reliable FEM technologies to create practical vehicle models that represent the precise characteristics of the trim. In this paper, poroelastic modeling of acoustic multilayer trim was established by employing Biot theory.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Vehicles Lessons Learned and Future Prospects

There exist many environmental and earth resource problems to be solved for the 21st century. Hybridization of both internal combustion powertrains and fuel cell powertrains holds great promise for next generation vehicles. This paper describes the lessons learned during design, development, production and marketing of nearly 700,000 hybrid vehicles to date. We review the evolution of major components with a focus on reducing cost, mass and volume while increasing power and efficiency. We also describe the future prospects for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Integrated Robot System Operation for Achieving High Productivity

The integration of robot system operation is the most important and interesting issues for robot end users. Increasing robot operations by a growing variety of robots, applications, and models is a serious problem in maintaining high productivity and reducing maintenance cost. In the practical development of the Toyota global body assembly line (GBL), we designed a special robot operation and man-machine interface system based on the experience of robot operators. The Toyota Integrated Robot Operation System (IROS) offers remarkable advantages in the application of practical body assembly lines.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bio-plastics for Automotive Parts

We studied the use of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, improvement in heat and impact performance is required. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase in CO2 emissions, we attempted to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both heat and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which leads to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bio-plastics for Automotive Parts

We studied the application of Bio-plastics (plastics made from plants) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to automotive parts. To apply this material to automotive plastic parts, major improvement is required for thermal and impact performance. From the viewpoint of suppressing the increase CO2 emissions, we attempt to improve the performance of PLA by combining with natural fiber. As the result, we could improve both thermal and impact performance. In addition, we could achieve higher modulus and lower bulk density, which lead to the weight reduction of automotive parts.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Journal Article

Narrow-Band Omnidirectional Structural Color

Automotive pigments consist of absorptive materials which absorb most of the wavelengths of light in the visible range (400-800 nm) except one particular range which gets reflected and seen as color. This coloring mechanism based on light absorption due to their molecular structure generally reflects a broader range of wavelength with a moderate reflectivity (50-60%). However in nature we find many magnificent colors in insects, butterflies, birds and fishes. These colors in nature are not based on the abortive pigments, but on the nanoscopic regular structures that interfere light reflected from those periodic sites. Since animals contain no solid metals, to produce metallic-like reflections they also rely on interference of light.[1] Most common and well-known form of animal reflector is the multilayer type where alternating high and low refractive index layers are formed. Such nanostructure assembly can reflect light up to 100%.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Induction System of an Internal Combustion Engine -Multi-Dimensional Calculation Using a New Method of Lines

Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.