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Technical Paper

A Molecular Dynamics Analysis of the Traction Fluids

2007-04-16
2007-01-1016
Non-equilibrium all-atom MD simulations are used to study the traction properties of hydrocarbon fluids. A fluid layer is confined between two solid Fe plates under the constant normal force of 1.0 GPa. Traction simulations are performed by applying a relative sliding motion to the Fe plates. Shear behaviors of nine hydrocarbon fluids are simulated on a sufficiently large film thickness of 6.7 nm, and succeeded in reproducing the order of the experimental traction coefficients. The dynamic mechanism of the momentum transfer on layers of fluid molecules are analyzed focusing on the intermolecular interactions (density profile, orientation factor, pair-correlation function) and intramolecular interactions (intramolecular interaction energy, conformation change of alicyclic ring). In contrast to the case of n-hexane, which shows low traction due to a fragile chain-like interaction, other mechanisms are obtained in the high traction molecules of cyclohexane, dicyclohexyl and santotrac 50.
Technical Paper

A Study of Evaluating the Real-time Property for Engine Control Software

2001-03-05
2001-01-0058
Recently, the role of ECU(Electronic Control Unit) on vehicles has been becoming more important year by year in order to meet the requirements for safety and the environmental matters. Particularly, the ECU of Engine Management Systems has been becoming indispensable in order to realize high performance, low fuel consumption and low exhaust emission. Therefore, the size of software has also been increasing, and been becoming more complex and complicated. As the ECU software size becomes large and complex, the verification and validation of the software by using the current development method has been becoming more difficult. Especially it has been becoming more difficult to validate the Real-time property of the software. The Real-time property means whether the execution of the software is in time for the deadline which is decided on the software design.
Technical Paper

A Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Opportunity in Light-Duty Vehicles by Analyzing Real Driving Patterns

2017-03-28
2017-01-1162
Electric drive vehicles (EDV) have the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and thus, there are many policies in place to encourage the purchase and use of gasoline-hybrid, battery, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell electric vehicles. But not all vehicles are the same, and households use vehicles in very different ways. What if policies took these differences into consideration with the goal of further reducing GHG emissions? This paper attempts to answer two questions: i) are there certain households that, by switching from a conventional vehicle to an EDV, would result in a comparatively large GHG reduction (as compared to other households making that switch), and, if so, ii) how large is the difference in GHG reductions? The paper considers over 65,000 actual GPS trip traces (generated by one-second interval recording of the speed of approximately 2,900 vehicles) collected by the 2013 California Household Travel Survey (CHTS).
Journal Article

A Study on Optimal Powertrain Sizing of Plugin Hybrid Vehicles for Minimizing Criteria Emissions Associated with Cold Starts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0406
Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have several attractive features in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles (CVs) that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE), PHEVs have better energy efficiency like regular hybrids (HEVs), allow for electrifying an appreciable portion of traveled miles, and have no range anxiety issues like battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). However, in terms of criteria emissions (e.g., NOx, NMOG, HC), it is unclear if PHEVs are any better than HEVs or CVs. Unlike GHG emissions, criteria emissions are not continuously emitted in proportional quantities to fossil fuel consumption. Rather, the amount and type of criteria emissions is a rather complex function of many factors, including type of fuel, ICE temperature, speed and torque, catalyst temperature, as well as the ICE controls (e.g., fuel-to-air ratio, valve and ignition timing).
Technical Paper

Advanced Thermal Comfort in the Passenger Vehicle Compartment

2002-10-21
2002-21-0053
The demand for thermal comfort in the passenger vehicle compartment is infinite. As a result, technologically sophisticated options and features continue to be upgraded both in the hardware and software sectors. The personalization of comfort became a priority and led to improvements in automatic room temperature control techniques. Furthermore, the demand is rising not only for thermal comfort but also for cabin air quality improvement. Also, contributions to improve mileage and fuel consumption are a new request at the present time. This paper introduces the latest thermal comfort technologies in temperature and airflow controls as well as air quality improvement features. In addition, this paper introduces fuel consumption reduction technology employed by the A/C configuration of the TOYOTA HYBRID SYSTEM.
Journal Article

An Application of Model Based Combustion Control to Transient Cycle-by-Cycle Diesel Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1311
From the viewpoint of the global warming restraint, reduction of exhaust emissions from diesel engine is urgent demand. However, it needs further development in combustion control besides after treatment system. Larger amount of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) is effective to reduce NOx emission. On the other hand, in-cylinder physical conditions greatly influence on self-ignition and combustion process, especially low O2 fraction charged gas owing to excessive EGR causes misfire. A drastic solution for this problem, fuel injection timing should be optimally manipulated based on predicted ignition delay period before actual injection. For this purpose, Toyota has developed a model based diesel combustion control concept to avoid the misfire and to keep low emission combustion includes in transient condition.
Journal Article

An Application of a Model-Prediction-Based Reference Modification Algorithm to Engine Air Path Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0586
In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits. Hence, it is quite beneficial to cultivate RG methodologies to deal with multiple references and constraints.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Simplification of Thermal Endurance Tests of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1496
Our two types of NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalyst have been tested under various conditions of thermal endurance; the performance of these catalysts have been regressed to give the formulas that enable to estimate the performance after thermal endurance; and we have found the method to simplify (shorten the duration of) the thermal endurance tests and that the thermal deterioration of NSR catalysts is controlled by the worst condition of endurance (at least approximately). The regression formula for the amount of potassium that contributes to the catalyst performance (active K) after the endurance has also been obtained. These formulas predict that the amount of active K is the least for the worst condition of endurance and suggest a difference in deterioration mechanism that reflects the performance between low and high temperatures and the portion of worse deterioration (front or rear).
Technical Paper

Analysis for Relationship between Vehicle NOx Emission and Roadside NO2 Concentration

2008-04-14
2008-01-0755
NO2 sources of roadside atmosphere at Matsubarabashi monitoring station in Tokyo were investigated analytically. The result showed that contribution of urban background is dominant from November to February and NO oxidation with O3 has large contribution from April to September. NO2 air quality standard will be achieved by reducing vehicle NOx emission to post-new long-term regulation level. The analytical method was verified by using our developed simulation system, which consists of micro traffic flow analyzer and CFD-based, unsteady-state diffusion with chemical reaction solver.
Technical Paper

Analysis of EGR Cyclic Variations in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine by Using Raman Scattering Method

2002-05-06
2002-01-1646
The Raman scattering method has been developed for the simultaneous, cycle by cycle measurement of HC, O2, H2O, and N2 in a direct injection gasoline engine with EGR. By using the Raman scattering method, the effect of EGR on stratified charge combustion can be investigated in a direct injection SI gasoline engine. The results show that (1) at the compression stroke homogeneous EGR gas exists, (2) variation of component mass fraction of EGR (qualitative fluctuation) introduced in the previous combustion cycle is the primary reason for EGR fluctuation, (3) under normal operating conditions, EGR fluctuation (component mass fraction and quantitative fluctuation) doesn't influence on the combustion fluctuation at the stratified charge operation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Potassium Storage Components in NOx Catalysts Application of Analytical Techniques and DFT Computations to Catalytic Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1494
By using analytical techniques (FT-IR, TG-MS, ICP) and DFT calculations, the potassium (K) used as a storage component in NOx Catalysts can be analyzed. The results from this study show that the, K exists as K2CO3, and that the amount, molecular structure, and thermal stability of K2CO3 are different, depending on the support material (ZrO2, Al2O3, or TiO2). If the amount of K that interacts with the support to form an inactive complex oxide is decreased, the amount of K2CO3 and NOx storage is increased. The amount of the inactive K varies with the basicity of the supports. K2CO3 that exists in unstable structures on the supports can be easy to react with NOx to form the nitrate. So, the higher the quantity of unstable K2CO3, the higher the NOx storage capacity. Based on these results, a development guideline was proposed to improve the NOx storage performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sophisticated DPNR Catalyst, Focused on PM Particle Number Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0290
Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR) is an effective technology for the diesel after-treatment system, which can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously. Further improvement of the DPNR is expected for cleaner air in the future. The catalyst for the DPNR (called DPNR catalyst) consists of a NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) catalyst coated onto a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The development of the DPNR catalyst for the decrease of exhaust weight has been considered before now with respect to the PM combustion. But it will be necessary to focus on PM particle number emissions in the future. In this study, the relationship between the pore structure of the DPNR catalyst and the trapping of PM to lower particle number was clarified by evaluating a high-porosity, large-pore cordierite DPF with an average pore size of 20 μm or greater. Furthermore, the optimal pore structure to trap PM particles in a highly effective manner was discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sulfur-Related White Smoke Emissions from DPF System

2015-09-01
2015-01-2023
In a Diesel engine with a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) system, high-sulfur fuel causes white smoke containing odorous and harmful pollutants during DPF regeneration. This study investigates the conditions and mechanisms of sulfur-related white smoke generation. Engine and vehicle tests found that sulfur compounds emitted from the engine accumulated on the catalysts in the DPF system and were emitted as white smoke during DPF regeneration. The white smoke was observed when the catalyst temperature was more than 450°C, under conditions such as the early stage of DPF regeneration. Model gas tests were conducted to clarify the mechanism of the white smoke. It was found that SO2 emitted from the engine was oxidized to SO3 on the catalyst, which was then mainly absorbed on the oxidation catalyst support (Al2O3). Then, the absorbed SO3 was desorbed and converted into white smoke.
Journal Article

Application of Reference Governor Using Soft Constraints and Steepest Descent Method to Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Temperature Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0350
This paper considers an application of reference governor (RG) to automotive diesel aftertreatment temperature control. Recently, regulations on vehicle emissions have become more stringent, and engine hardware and software are expected to be more complicated. It is getting more difficult to guarantee constraints in control systems as well as good control performance. Among model-based control methods that can directly treat constraints, this paper focuses on the RG, which has recently attracted a lot of attention as one method of model prediction-based control. In the RG, references in tracking control are modified based on future prediction so that the predicted outputs in a closed-loop system satisfy the constraints. This paper proposes an online RG algorithm, taking account of the real-time implementation on engine embedded controllers.
Journal Article

Calibration and Validation of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Model: from Synthetic Gas Testing to Driving Cycle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1244
To meet future stringent emission regulations such as Euro6, the design and control of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems will become more complex in order to ensure their optimum operation over time. Moreover, because of the strong pressure for CO₂ emissions reduction, the average exhaust temperature is expected to decrease, posing significant challenges on exhaust after-treatment. Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) are already widely used to reduce CO and hydrocarbons (HC) from diesel engine emissions. In addition, DOC is also used to control the NO₂/NOx ratio and to generate the exothermic reactions necessary for the thermal regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and NOx Storage and Reduction catalysts (NSR). The expected temperature decrease of diesel exhaust will adversely affect the CO and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) conversion efficiency of the catalysts. Therefore, the development cost for the design and control of new DOCs is increasing.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Various Dilution Gases

2007-04-16
2007-01-0126
The effects of intake dilution with various dilution gases including nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide on low temperature diesel combustion were investigated in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine to understand the mechanism of the simultaneous reductions in smoke and NOx with ultra-high EGR. NOx almost completely disappears with the intake oxygen concentration diluted below 16% regardless of the kind of dilution gas. Smoke emissions decrease with increased heat capacity of the charged gas due to promotion of mixture homogeneity with longer ignition delays. Intake dilution with the 36% CO2 + 64% Ar mixture which has a similar specific heat capacity as N2 shows lower smoke emissions than with N2. Chemical kinetics analysis shows that carbon dioxide may help to reduce NOx and soot by lowering the reaction temperature as well as by changing the concentrations of some radicals or/and species related to soot and NOx formation.
Journal Article

Combustion Development to Realize High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0693
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
Journal Article

Combustion Improvement of Diesel Engine by Alcohol Addition - Investigation of Port Injection Method and Blended Fuel Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0336
Alcohol fuels that can be produced from cellulose continue to become more widely used in gasoline engines. This research investigated the application of alcohol to diesel engines with the aims of improving the combustion of diesel engines and of utilizing alternative fuels. Two methods were compared, a method in which alcohol is injected into the air intake system and a method in which alcohol is blended in advance into the diesel fuel. Alcohol is an oxygenated fuel and so the amount of soot that is emitted is small. Furthermore, blended fuels have characteristics that help promote mixture formation, which can be expected to reduce the amount of soot even more, such as a low cetane number, low viscosity, low surface tension, and a low boiling point. Ethanol has a strong moisture-absorption attribute and separates easily when mixed with diesel fuel. Therefore, 1-butanol was used since it possesses a strong hydrophobic attribute and does not separate easily.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0689
In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

2006-10-16
2006-01-3386
This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
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