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Technical Paper

A Robustness-Focused Shape Optimization Method for Intake Ports

2009-06-15
2009-01-1777
Merging a CAE shape optimization system and a concept Taguchi method SN-ratio index, a robustness-focused automated shape optimization method has been developed. Applying this method to diesel intake ports, with mold position tolerance set as the error factor, SN-ratio was defined for swirl stability. As a result of the optimization provided by a multi-objective genetic algorithm, simultaneous improvement of flux, swirl rotation and SN ratio was achieved.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends

2010-10-25
2010-01-2116
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Degradation Mechanism of Lead-Free Materials

2009-04-20
2009-01-0260
The use of lead-free (Pb-free) solder and plating in onboard electronic components has accelerated rapidly in recent years, but solutions have yet to be found for the issues of whisker generation in tin (Sn) plating and crack initiation in Pb-free solder, despite widespread research efforts. Analysis of the whisker generation mechanism has focused on internal energy levels and crystal orientation, and analysis of the crack initiation mechanism in Pb-free solder has examined changes in the grain boundaries of Sn crystals.
Journal Article

Analysis of Influence of Snow Melting Agents and Soil Components on Corrosion of Decorative Chrome Plating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0539
The dissolution and exfoliation of chromium plating specific to Russia was studied. Investigation and analysis of organic compounds in Russian soil revealed contents of highly concentrated fulvic acid. Additionally, it was found that fulvic acid, together with CaCl2 (a deicing agent), causes chromium plating corrosion. The fulvic acid generates a compound that prevents reformation of a passivation film and deteriorates the sacrificial corrosion effectiveness of nickel.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction in Internal Combustion Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2515
The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Potassium Storage Components in NOx Catalysts Application of Analytical Techniques and DFT Computations to Catalytic Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1494
By using analytical techniques (FT-IR, TG-MS, ICP) and DFT calculations, the potassium (K) used as a storage component in NOx Catalysts can be analyzed. The results from this study show that the, K exists as K2CO3, and that the amount, molecular structure, and thermal stability of K2CO3 are different, depending on the support material (ZrO2, Al2O3, or TiO2). If the amount of K that interacts with the support to form an inactive complex oxide is decreased, the amount of K2CO3 and NOx storage is increased. The amount of the inactive K varies with the basicity of the supports. K2CO3 that exists in unstable structures on the supports can be easy to react with NOx to form the nitrate. So, the higher the quantity of unstable K2CO3, the higher the NOx storage capacity. Based on these results, a development guideline was proposed to improve the NOx storage performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Behaviors of Swirl Nozzle Spray and Slit Nozzle Spray in Relation to DI Gasoline Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0058
Behavior of sprays formed by slit nozzle as well as swirl nozzles with the spray cone angle in the range of 40° ∼110 ° were studied in a constant volume N2 gas chamber. The fuels used are iso-pentane, n-heptane, benzene and gasoline. The ambient pressure and temperature were raised up to 1.0 MPa and 465 K, respectively. The injection pressure was mainly set at 8 MPa. Spray penetrates at an almost constant speed for a while after injection start and begins to decelerate at a certain point. This point was judged as breakup point, based on a momentum theory on spray motion, the observation of spray inside and the analysis of the spray front reacceleration which occurs under highly volatile condition.
Journal Article

Calibration and Validation of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Model: from Synthetic Gas Testing to Driving Cycle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1244
To meet future stringent emission regulations such as Euro6, the design and control of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems will become more complex in order to ensure their optimum operation over time. Moreover, because of the strong pressure for CO₂ emissions reduction, the average exhaust temperature is expected to decrease, posing significant challenges on exhaust after-treatment. Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) are already widely used to reduce CO and hydrocarbons (HC) from diesel engine emissions. In addition, DOC is also used to control the NO₂/NOx ratio and to generate the exothermic reactions necessary for the thermal regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and NOx Storage and Reduction catalysts (NSR). The expected temperature decrease of diesel exhaust will adversely affect the CO and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) conversion efficiency of the catalysts. Therefore, the development cost for the design and control of new DOCs is increasing.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

2006-10-16
2006-01-3386
This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Design Concept and Advantages of Steer-by-Wire System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0493
Because of recent advances in steering control technology, steer-by-wire systems have continued to become more realistic. The principal issue for these steer-by-wire systems is considered to be promoting reliability through the construction of a design concept that can be utilized appropriately by drivers. This paper first describes the flow between the concept and system structure, and proposes a steer-by-wire system with a mechanical backup mechanism as one possibility. This paper also describes an investigation into its potential advantages using an experimental vehicle installed with the proposed system structure. The potential advantages of steer-by-wire are improved vehicle driving performance, vehicle maneuverability, and the feasibility of innovative packaging and design. In order to make improved maneuverability and design innovations compatible, it is critical to achieve steering characteristics that require little maneuvering angle.
Technical Paper

Development of Automotive Rubber Parts with New Recycling Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0015
Rubber is a thermosetting material and as such is generally considered difficult to recycle; therefore there is a demand for the development of rubber recycling technology to protect the environment and conserve resources. Some technologies exist to recycle vulcanized rubber, but none of these has high enough productivity to produce reclaimed rubber, and re-vulcanized rubber does not have the same properties as virgin rubber materials. Now a new recycling technology, called Shear Flow Stage Reactor, has been developed for rubber reclamation. This new technology has high productivity and can achieve the same properties as virgin materials. Automotive parts have been developed and are being produced with recycled Ethylene-Propylene-diene Rubber (EPDM) based on this new technology. The performance of the developed parts is the same as the parts made from virgin materials.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Journal Article

Development of Compact and High-Performance Fuel Cell Stack

2015-04-14
2015-01-1175
Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell (FC) technology since 1992, and finally “MIRAI” was launched in 15th Dec. 2014. An important step was achieved with the release of the “FCHV-adv” in 2008. It established major improvements in efficiency, driving range, durability, and cold start capability. However, enhancing performance and further reductions in size and cost are required to facilitate the commercial widespread adoption of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). TMC met these challenges by developing the world's first FC stack without a humidifying system. This was achieved by the development of an innovative cell flow field structure and membrane electrode assembly (MEA), enabling a compact and high-performance FC stack. Other cost reduction measures incorporated by the FC stack include reducing the amount of platinum in the catalyst by two-thirds and adopting a carbon nano-coating for the separator surface treatment.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture Model for Laser Screw Welding

2016-04-05
2016-01-1344
This paper describes the development of a fracture finite element (FE) model for laser screw welding (LSW) and validation of the model with experimental results. LSW was developed and introduced to production vehicles by Toyota Motor Corporation in 2013. LSW offers superb advantages such as increased productivity and short pitch welding. Although the authors had previously developed fracture FE models for conventional resistance spot welding (RSW), a fracture model for LSW has not been developed. To develop this fracture model, many comprehensive experiments were conducted. The results revealed that LSW had twice as many variations in fracture modes compared to RSW. Moreover, fracture mode bifurcations were also found to result from differences in clearance between welded plates. In order to analyze LSW fracture phenomena, detailed FE models using fine hexahedral elements were developed.
Technical Paper

Development of Hall Effect Device Based Height Sensor

2005-04-11
2005-01-0459
We have developed a Hall effect device based height sensor of a smaller size, and with higher temperature operation durability, as compared to conventional devices. Downsizing of the sensor is realized by decreasing a number of parts, and by employing a short bearing. Improvement in heat resistance is achieved by adopting an IC with sufficient heat resistance and a SmCo magnet with high coercive force. In addition, a sensor of a high degree of accuracy is accomplished by improvements in linearity and robustness of magnetic characteristics. Development of a small, heat-resistant and accurate height sensor will promote the spread of systems using a height sensor, such as a High Intensity Discharge (HID) headlamp.
Journal Article

Development of Hardening Depth Evaluation Technique using Eddy Current – Establishment and Introduction of In-line Hardening Depth Inspection System –

2009-04-20
2009-01-0867
A hardening depth evaluation technique using eddy current has been developed, which can be applied to a mass production line for destructive (cutting) inspections. Using this technique, changes in the hardness of the induction-hardened structure can be detected based on the changes in magnetic permeability. This technique reduces the thermal effect and improves measurement accuracy through a multi-frequency exciting method and a difference method algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Strength Aluminum Piston Material

2010-04-12
2010-01-0220
Mass reduction of parts is growing in importance as a means for reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles.The aim of the present research was to contribute to further mass reduction of pistons by developing a new aluminum casting material with highest level of fatigue strength. This goal was achieved using a development concept of creating a homogeneous structure in which Ti was added to create a fine structure and appropriate quantities of Fe and Mn were added to form a compound that is stable at high temperatures. Stand-alone tests of prototype pistons fabricated using the developed material show that the material is 14% stronger than the conventional material, thereby enabling increases in power and mass reduction.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

1999-05-17
1999-01-1656
This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of Lithium-Ion Battery for Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0066
We developed a high performance automotive lithium-ion battery and applied it to our new Toyota Intelligent Idling Stop System. This hybrid power management system has been introduced in the “intelligent package” of Toyota Vitz vehicles sold in Japan. The lithium-ion battery is installed under the seat on the passenger-side. The battery supplies electric power to the auxiliary electrical systems during the “idling stop” mode, and when restarting the engine. The main requirements of this battery are to supply high electric power output even at low temperatures and at the same time, maintain continuous power during charge and discharge cycling, and have long storage life. This performance has been accomplished successfully through a series of improvements in battery materials and structures.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure and High Performance GPF Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-1261
Awareness of environmental protection with respect to the particulate number (PN) in the exhaust emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine vehicles has increased. In order to decrease the emission of particulate matter (PM), suppressing emissions by improving engine combustion, and/or filtering PM with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is effective. This paper describes the improvement of the coated GPF to reduce pressure drop while securing three-way performance and PN filtration efficiency. It was necessary to load a certain amount of washcoat on the GPF to add the three-way function, but this led to an increase in pressure drop that affected engine power. The pressure drop was influenced by the gas permeation properties of the filter wall.
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