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Technical Paper

A Novel Direct Yaw Moment Control System for Autonomous Vehicle

2018-08-07
2018-01-1594
Although autonomous driving technology has become an emerging research focus, safety is still the most crucial concern when autonomous vehicles leave research laboratory and enter public traffic. Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment, is an important system to ensure the driving stability of vehicle under extreme conditions. Traditional DYC system must need to take into account driver’s intention and vehicle dynamics. However, for autonomous vehicle, no human is involved in driving process, and enforcing traditional DYC system may conflict with the demands of the desired path. Therefore, in this paper, a novel DYC system for autonomous vehicle is proposed to simultaneously suppress lateral path tracking deviation while maintaining autonomous vehicle stability at or close to the driving limits. In the hardware aspect, an integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator scheme is adopted.
Journal Article

A Novel Hierarchical Global Chassis Control System for Distributed Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0091
The current global chassis control (GCC) frequently makes use of decoupled control methods which depend on driving condition partition and simple rule-based vertical force distribution, and are insufficient to obtain optimal vehicle dynamics performance. Therefore, a novel hierarchical global chassis control system for a distributed electric vehicle (DEV), which is equipped with four wheel driving/steering and active suspension systems, is developed in this paper. The control system consists of three layers: in the upper layer, the desired forces/moments based on vehicular driving demands are determined; in the middle layer, a coordinated control method of longitudinal/lateral/vertical tire forces are proposed; in the lower layer, the driving/steering/suspension control is conducted to realize each distributed tire force.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study Using Spark-Assisted Stratified Compression Ignition (SSCI) Hybrid Combustion Mode for Engine Particle Number (PN) Reduction in a High Compression Ratio Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0758
Particle Number (PN) have already been a big issue for developing high efficiency internal combustion engines (ICEs). In this study, controlled spark-assisted stratified compression ignition (SSCI) with moderate end-gas auto-ignition was used for reducing PN in a high compression ratio gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Under wide open throttle (WOT) and Maximum Brake Torque timing (MBT) condition, high external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was filled in the cylinder, while two-stage direct injection was used to form desired stoichiometric but stratified mixture. SSCI combustion mode exhibits two-stage heat release, where the first stage is associated with flame propagation induced by spark ignition and the second stage is the result of moderate end-gas auto-ignition without pressure oscillation at the middle or late stage of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

CAD of engine dynamic test bed based on hybrid simulation

2000-06-12
2000-05-0348
The hybrid simulation method is adopted to develop engine dynamic test bed based on eddy-current dynamometer. The hybrid simulation scheme of engine dynamic test bed is designed. The principle is discussed. Finally, the CAD method is used to design main parameters of engine dynamic test bed based on simulation ECE15 and US LA4-CH Driving Schedules by Shanghai Santana 2000 car. The results are compared to the actual test results on the chassis dynamometer. The hybrid simulation method is proved to be an efficient way by simulation and comparison.
Technical Paper

Design Concepts of the Four-Wheel-Independent Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-09-28
2014-01-2537
The four-wheel-independent Electro-hydraulic Braking system (4WI EHB) is a wet type Brake-by-Wire system for passenger vehicle and is suitable for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to cooperate with regenerative braking. This paper gives a review on the design concepts of the 4WI EHB from the following three aspects. 1. Hydraulic architectures. 2. Design concepts of the brake actuator. 3. Installation of the components on the vehicle. Simulations and experiments are carried out to further explore the performance of hydraulic backup and implicit hardware redundancy (IHR). A method to integrate the IHR with hydraulic backup without increasing the total amount of valves is proposed, making the IHR cost and weight competitive. By reviewing various design concepts and analyzing their advantages and drawbacks, a cost and weight competitive design concept of the 4WI EHB with good fail-safe and fault-tolerant performance is proposed.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of an Automotive Magneto-Rheological Brake System

2013-09-30
2013-01-2061
The paper presents a new electromechanical brake system for vehicles using magnetorheological fluid. The brake system designed for the electric vehicle has some advantages over the conventional brake system. The brake system is made up of a brake disk, shells, magnetorheological fluid (MRF) and the electromagnets. The brake disk is immersed in the MRF whose yield stress changes as the applied magnetic field. The braking torque of this system can be linearly adjusted by the current in just a few milliseconds without the conventional vacuum booster. This system has a quick response and precise control performance with a low hysteresis. Besides, the system has adopted the original complicated structure to save space and cost. In this paper, the configuration of MRF brake types is described. The braking torques of the MRF brakes is derived based on the MRF theoretical model which is firstly raised. Some braking simulation based on the theoretical model is also shown.
Technical Paper

Design, Modeling and Simulation of a New Compact Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2014-09-28
2014-01-2535
With the advantages of free from engine vacuum, wheel cylinder pressure decoupled from the brake pedal and can be regulated individually and precisely, the brake-by-wire system has a huge application potential in vehicles, especially in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Electro-hydraulic Brake system is the first approach towards brake-by-wire technology. This paper proposed a new compact EHB, aiming at decreasing the size, volume and cost without compromise of performance. The main components of the proposed EHB are pedal simulator, motor pump, accumulator and eight solenoid valves. An authentic model of the EHB and other key components of the brake system were established based on the test data from the test bench. A control algorithm using Round-Robin scheduling was presented to regulate the fluid pressure. Some parameters of the components were discussed to research their effects on system performance.
Technical Paper

Develop of active suspension and experimental study of control strategy based on output feedback and frequency shaping

2000-06-12
2000-05-0179
In this paper, a 2-DOF experimental equipment of active suspension is developed. This system is hydro-pneumatic type and is controlled through oil flow. A control strategy based on output feedback and frequency shaping is proposed and realized on this model. Output feedback can reduce the number of system states that should be measured and thus simplify the complexity and improve the reliability of the system. Because of the different human sensitivity to different frequency ranges of vibration, it is necessary to pay effort on the suppression of vibration according to human sensitivity. Frequency shaping technology is thus applied on performance index to improve the ride quality. Several types of measurement versions are investigated and optimized. Simulation results indicate that using sprung mass velocity and suspension deflection, the system performance can approach the full-state feedback system performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Research and Optimal Design of an Automotive Magneto-Rheological Brake System

2014-09-28
2014-01-2534
The paper is focused on the research of the automotive magneto-rheological brake system whose braking force comes from the shear stress of magneto-rheological fluid under the condition of magnetic field. The MRF brake is designed for an electric passenger car to replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. The braking torque of this system can be linearly adjusted by the current in just a few milliseconds with proper materials. Therefore this system has a quick response and precise control performance with a low hysteresis. Nowadays, most of the related research of MRF is about the construction of the prototype and the realization of the brake force. Main limitation of MRF brake lies in the braking torque cannot meet the actual needs and the power consumption may be too much if it is not well designed. The prototype introduced in the SAE Brake Colloquium-31nd Annual has been manufactured and assembled critically.
Journal Article

On the Effect of Friction Law in Closed-Loop Coupling Disc Brake Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0476
Brake squeal is a complex dynamics instability issue for automobile industry. Closed-loop coupling model deals with brake squeal from a perspective of structural instability. Friction characteristics between pads and disc rotor play important roles. In this paper, a closed-loop coupling model which incorporates negative friction-velocity slope is presented. Different from other existing models where the interface nodes are coupled through assumed springs, they are connected directly in the presented model. Negative friction slope is taken into account. Relationship between nodes’ frictional forces, relative speeds and brake pressure under equilibrant sliding and vibrating states is analysed. Then repeated nodal coordinate elimination and substructures’ modal coordinate space transformation of system dynamic equation are performed. It shows that the negative friction slope leads to negative damping items in dynamic equation of system.
Technical Paper

Prototype of Distributed Electro-Hydraulic Braking System and its Fail-Safe Control Strategy

2013-09-30
2013-01-2066
Prototype of a brake-by-wire (BBW) system named Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System (DEHB) has been developed. As a BBW system, DEHB is suitable to be used in electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Comparing to the ‘dry’ type distributed BBW systems such as Electro-mechanical Braking System (EMB) or Electric Wedge Brake (EWB), the ‘wet’ feature of DEHB brings benefits to system cost, installation, performance and reliability. In this paper, prototype of the DEHB was described. Based on its ‘wet’ feature, a new fail-safe control for DEHB was proposed. Two types of DEHB architectures that can perform the proposed fail-safe control were described. Superiority of the proposed fail-safe control and architectures for DEHB were examined and verified through simulations and HIL experiments, which helps DEHB to reach a high level of safety and reliability with reduced cost on electro/electronic redundancy.
Technical Paper

Study on Brake Squeal by Feed-In Energy Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-0950
Brake squeal noise is studied in this paper by feed-in energy analysis. Based on the closed-loop coupling brake model, the computation method of feed-in energy is derived for the system squeal mode. The amount of feed-in energy can indicate the degree of squeal tendency of the brake system. Feed-in energy analysis can clearly reveal the influence of some structural parameters on brake noise, such as coefficient of friction, the geometric shape and stiffness of pads, and key substructure modal shape. It also can help to analyze the structure modification to eliminate brake squeal.
Journal Article

Study on Repeated-Root Modes in Substructure Modal Composition Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0477
The dynamic properties of disc rotor play important role in the NVH performance of a disc brake system. Disc rotor in general is a centrosymmetric structure. It has many repeated-root modes within the interested frequency range and they may have significant influence on squeal occurrence. A pair of repeated-root modes is in nature one vibration mode. However, in current complex eigenvalue analysis model and relevant analysis methods, repeated-root modes are processed separately. This may lead to contradictory result. This paper presents methods to deal with repeated-root modes in substructure modal composition (SMC) analysis to avoid the contradiction. Through curve-fitting technique, the modal shape coefficients of repeated-root modes are expressed in an identical formula. This formula is used in SMC analysis to obtain an integrated SMC value to represent the total influence of two repeated-root modes.
Journal Article

Study on a Closed-Loop Coupling Model without Coupling Spring

2016-04-05
2016-01-1315
Closed-loop coupling model, based on complex eigenvalue analysis, is one of the most popular and effective methods for brake squeal analysis. In the model, imaginary coupling springs are used to represent the normal contacting force between coupled nodes. Unfortunately, the physical meaning of these coupling springs was seldom discussed and there’s no systematic method to determine the value of spring stiffness. Realizing this problem, this paper, based on finite element model and modal synthesis technique, develops a new closed-loop coupling disc brake squeal model without introducing imaginary coupling springs. Different from the traditional model where two nodes at coupling interface are connected through a spring, these node-pairs in the new model are assumed to remain in tight contact during vibration. Details of the model, including force analysis, coordinate reduction and transformation and complex eigenvalue decomposition are given in this paper.
Technical Paper

Substructure Modal Composition and Sensitivity Analysis based on Closed-Loop Coupling Model without Coupling Spring

2016-04-05
2016-01-1309
In this paper, analysis methods for brake squeal including substructure modal composition analysis and substructure modal parameters sensitivity analysis are presented. These methods are based on a new closed-loop coupling disc brake model, where the coupled nodal pairs in each coupling interface are connected tightly. This assumption is different from other existing models in literatures, where the interface nodes are coupled through assumed springs. Based on this new model, two analysis methods are derived: Substructure modal composition analysis indicates the contribution of modes of each substructure to the noise mode; Substructure modal parameters sensitivity analysis indicates the sensitivity of the real part of system’s eigenvalue to component’s modal frequency and shape. Finally, the presented analysis methods are applied to analyse a high frequency squeal problem of a squealing disc brake.
Technical Paper

The Study of Operating Efficiency Enhancement of Traction Motor with the Application of a Two-Speed Transmission in an Electric Bus

2014-10-13
2014-01-2891
This paper discusses whether it is possible to improve the motor efficiency by a two-speed transmission in an electric bus, and if so, to what extent. Based on the China Bus Urban Cycle, an 8-meter electric bus was studied via simulation in Matlab/Simulink. The comparison of motor efficiency between two different configurations was made: direct drive and drive through a two-speed transmission. In the first part of the simulation, the speed ratios of the two-speed transmission were chosen as 1.5 and 3.5. The motor efficiency was improved by 1.22% for driving and 1.66% for generation. To find out the maximum improvement and corresponding optimal speed ratio combination, scanning experiment of the lower ratio and upper ratio was conducted in the second part. As much as 1.66% improvement of driving efficiency and 2.20% of regenerating efficiency was achieved.
Technical Paper

‘Wheel Slip-Based’ Evaluation of Road Friction Potential for Distributed Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1667
As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
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