# Search Results

Viewing 1 to 20 of 49
Technical Paper

### A Control Oriented Simplified Transient Torque Model of Turbocharged Diesel Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1708
Due to the high cost of torque sensors, a calculation model of transient torque is required for real-time coordinating control purpose, especially in hybrid electric powertrains. This paper presents a feedforward calculation method based on mean value model of turbocharged non-EGR diesel engines. A fitting variable called fuel coefficient is defined in an affine relation between brake torque and fuel mass. The fitting of fuel coefficient is simplified to depend only on three variables (engine speed, boost pressure, injected fuel mass). And a two-layer feedforward neural network is utilized to fit the experimental data. The model is validated by load response test and ETC (European Transient Cycle) transient test. The RMSE (root mean square error) of the brake torque is less than 3%.
Technical Paper

### A Control Strategy Based on Exact Linearization for Electromagnetic Valve Actuation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1596
Electromagnetic Valve Actuation (EVA) is considered to be a potential substitute of conventional valvetrains for automotive engines. However, valve quiet-seating (soft-landing) is difficult to be achieved. The EVA system and hence its’ mathematic model is nonlinear. Therefore, when linear control is used for EVA, firstly, the model has to be linearized at an equilibrium point through Taylor expansion. Consequently, the linearized model and control are valid only for a small range around the equilibrium point. This paper presents a control strategy for the whole transition of EVA, which combines exact linearization with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). Firstly, the nonlinear EVA model is transformed to be linear in a new coordinate by using exact linearization, so the nonlinear model is not involved. Then the exact-linearized model is used for the EVA control with LQR.
Technical Paper

### A Dynamic Model for Tire/Road Friction Estimation under Combined Longitudinal/Lateral Slip Situation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0123
A new dynamic tire model for estimating the longitudinal/lateral road-tire friction force was derived in this paper. The model was based on the previous Dugoff tire model, in consideration of its drawback that it does not reflect the actual change trend that the tire friction force decreases with the increment of wheel slip ratio when it enters into the nonlinear region. The Dugoff model was modified by fitting a series of tire force data and compared with the commonly used Magic Formula model. This new dynamic friction model is able to capture accurately the transient behavior of the friction force observed during pure longitudinal wheel slip, lateral sideslip and combined slip situation. Simulation has been done under different situations, while the results validate the accuracy of the new tire friction model in predicting tire/road friction force during transient vehicle motion.
Technical Paper

### A New Type of Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering System for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1502
The earth's fossil energy is not limitless, and we should be taking advantage of the highly developed fields of science and technology to utilize it more efficiently and to create a fully environmentally friendly life. Considering the prodigious amount of vehicles in the world today, even a small improvement in their energy-saving performance could have a significant impact. In this paper, a new type of electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) system is described. It has two main advantages. First, it can significantly decrease the demand on the motor so that it can be used for a wider range of vehicles. Second, its pressure-flow characteristic can be programmed and is more flexible than hydraulic power steering (HPS) system. A prototype with a 500 W motor was applied to a truck with a front load of 2,700 kg, and static steer sweep tests were conducted to validate its feasibility.
Technical Paper

### A Novel Three Steps Composited Parameter Matching Method of an Electromagnetic Regenerative Suspension System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0173
The electromagnetic regenerative suspension has attracted much attention recently due to its potential to improve ride comfort and handling stability, at the same time recover kinetic energy which is typically dissipated in traditional shock absorbers. The key components of a ball-screw regenerative suspension system are a motor, a ball screw and a nut. For this kind of regenerative suspension, its damping character is determined by the motor's torque-speed capacity, which is different from the damping character of the traditional shock absorber. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic approach for the parameter matching of ball-screw regenerative suspension, so that the damping character provided by it can ensure ride comfort and handling stability. In this paper, a 2-DOF quarter vehicle simulation model with regenerative suspension is constructed. The effects of the inertia force on ride comfort and handling stability are analyzed.
Technical Paper

### Active Steering and Anti-Roll Shared Control for Enhancing Roll Stability in Path Following of Autonomous Heavy Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0454
Rollover accident of heavy vehicle during cornering is a serious road safety problem worldwide. In the past decade, based on the active intervention into the heavy vehicle roll dynamics method, researches have proposed effective anti-roll control schemes to guarantee roll stability during cornering. Among those studies, however, roll stability control strategies are generally derived independent of front steering control inputs, the interactive control characteristic between steering and anti-roll system have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, a novel roll stability control structure that considers the interaction between steering and anti-roll system, is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

### An Empirical Model For Longitudinal Tire-Road Friction Estimation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1082
It's important to monitor the longitudinal friction at the tire/road interface for automotive dynamic control systems like ABS and ASR. Of all the tire friction models the empirical model provides a good illustration on longitudinal wheel forces. An improved exponential friction model based on vehicle driving states was proposed in this paper, the model can monitor the friction characteristics between the tire and road surface for longitudinal braking. Its validity was proven using experiments and comparison with the Pacejka Magic Formula (MF) model and others.
Technical Paper

### An Innovative Design of In-Tire Energy Harvester for the Power Supply of Tire Sensors

2018-04-03
2018-01-1115
With the development of intelligent vehicle and active vehicle safety systems, the demand of sensors is increasing, especially in-tire sensors. Tire parameters are essential for vehicle dynamic control, including tire pressure, tire temperature, slip angle, longitudinal force, etc.. The diversification and growth of in-tire sensors require adequate power supply. Traditionally, embedded batteries are used to power sensors in tire, however, they must be replaced periodically because of the limited energy storage. The power limitation of the batteries would reduce the real-time data transmission frequency and deteriorate the vehicle safety. Heightened interest focuses on generating power through energy harvesting systems in replace of the batteries. Current in-tire energy harvesting devices include piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrostatic and electromechanical mechanism, whose energy sources include tire deformations, vibrations and rotations.
Technical Paper

### Analysis of Active Collision Avoidance Performance Based on Cooperative Regenerative Auxiliary Braking System

2019-11-04
2019-01-5027
Active collision avoidance can assist drivers to avoid longitudinal collision through active brake. Regenerative braking can improve the driving range and braking response speed. At this stage, conventional hydraulic braking system limits the implements of above technologies because of its poor performance of response speed and coordinated control. While the brake-by-wire system is a better actuator that can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development due to its rapid response and flexible adjustment. However, the system control algorithm becomes more complicated with introduction of regenerative braking and active collision avoidance function, which is also the main problem solved in this paper.
Technical Paper

### Analysis of Energy Consumption on Typical Main Cylinder Booster Based Brake-by-Wire System

2016-09-18
2016-01-1955
The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
Technical Paper

### Architecture of iBus: A Self-Driving Bus for Public Roads

2017-03-28
2017-01-0067
Safety of buses is crucial because of the large proportion of the public transportation sector they constitute. To improve bus safety levels, especially to avoid driver error, which is a key factor in traffic accidents, we designed and implemented an intelligent bus called iBus. A robust system architecture is crucial to iBus. Thus, in this paper, a novel self-driving system architecture with improved robustness, such as to failure of hardware (including sensors and controllers), is proposed. Unlike other self-driving vehicles that operate either in manual driving mode or in self-driving mode, iBus offers a dual-control mode. More specifically, an online hot standby mechanism is incorporated to enhance the reliability of the control system, and a software monitor is implemented to ensure that all software modules function appropriately. The results of real-world road tests conducted to validate the feasibility of the overall system confirm that iBus is reliable and robust.
Journal Article

### Assessment of Ride Comfort and Braking Performance Using Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0649
Conventional viscous shock absorbers, in parallel with suspension springs, passively dissipate the excitation energy from road irregularity into heat waste, to reduce the transferred vibration which causes the discomfort of passengers. Energy-harvesting shock absorbers, which have the potential of conversion of kinetic energy into electric power, have been proposed as semi-active suspension to achieve better balance between the energy consumption and suspension performance. Because of the high energy density of the rotary shock absorber, a rotational energy-harvesting shock absorber with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is used in this paper. This paper presents the assessment of vehicle dynamic performance with the proposed energy-harvesting shock absorber in braking process. Moreover, a PI controller is proposed to attenuate the negative effect due to the pitch motion.
Technical Paper

### Attitude Control of the Vehicle with Six In-Wheel Drive and Adaptive Hydro Pneumatic Suspensions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0456
The ability of actively adjusting attitude provides a great advantage for those vehicles used in special environments such as off-road environment with extreme terrains and obstacles. It can improve vehicles’ stability and performance. This paper proposes an attitude control system for realizing the active attitude adjustment and vehicle motion control in the same time. The study is based on a vehicle with six wheel independent drive and six independent suspensions (6WIDIS), which is a kind of unmanned vehicle with six in-wheel drives and six independent hydro pneumatic suspensions. With the hydro- pneumatic suspensions, the vehicle’s attitude can be actively adjusted. This paper develops a centralized- distributed control strategy with attitude information obtained by multi-sensor fusion, which can coordinate the complex relationship among the six wheels and suspensions. The attitude control system consists of three parts.
Technical Paper

### Autonomous Emergency Braking Control Based on Hierarchical Strategy Using Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2017-09-23
2017-01-1964
Highway traffic safety has been the most serious problem in current society, statistics show that about 70% to 90% of accidents are caused by driver operational errors. The autonomous emergency braking (AEB) is one of important vehicle intelligent safety technologies to avoid or mitigate collision. The AEB system applies the vehicle brakes when a collision is eminent in spite of any reaction by the driver. In some technologies, the system forewarns the driver with an acoustic signal when a collision is still avoidable, but subsequently applies the brakes automatically if the driver fails to respond. This paper presents the development and implementation of a rear-end collision avoidance system based on hierarchical control framework which consists of threat assessment layer, wheel slip ratio control layer and integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator control layer.
Technical Paper

### Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Normal Traction Loading at Varying Strain Rates

2007-10-29
2007-22-0004
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. The mechanical properties of the bovine PAC under tensile loading have been characterized previously. However, the transverse properties of this structure, such as shear and normal traction which are equally important to understanding the skull/brain interaction under traumatic loading, have not been investigated. These material properties are essential information needed to adequately define the material model of the PAC in a finite element (FE) model of human brain. The purpose of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the PAC under normal traction loading. PAC specimens were obtained from freshly slaughtered bovine subjects from various locations.
Technical Paper

### Braking Force Identification of EMB Using Recursive Least-squares Method and Disturbance Observer Iteratively

2018-04-03
2018-01-1381
An identification method using recursive least-squares method with moving data window and reduced-order disturbance observer iteratively is proposed in this paper to identify fast time-varying braking force in the electronic mechanical braking system (EMB). For the type of EMB which generates braking force by balls screw and motor mounted beside wheel, the actuator will go rapidly to eliminate clearance at beginning of braking process by means of raising the braking response speed, and at the same time, increasing the motor output torque which might be far larger than required. The proposed identification method is able to identify the point of contact between the brake pads and the disk in time by identifying the change of break force, and the torque of motor will be changed in time to reduce the braking force overshoot so that brake locking is avoided.
Technical Paper

### Characterization of Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastics with Local Deformation Measurement

2012-04-16
2012-01-0040
In quasi-static tension and compression tests of thermoplastics, full-field strain distribution on the gage section of the specimen can be captured using the two-dimensional digital image correlation method. By loading the test specimens made of a talc-filled and impact-modified polypropylene up to tensile failure and large compressive strains, this study has revealed that inhomogeneous deformation within the gage section occurs quite early for both test types. This leads to the challenge of characterizing the mechanical properties - some mechanical properties such as stress-strain relationship and fracture strain could depend on the measured section length and location. To study this problem, the true stress versus true strain curves determined locally in different regions within the gage length are compared.
Technical Paper

### DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) Having a Holding Function

2015-03-10
2015-01-0017
Many types of brake by wire systems have been developed in past years, such as EMB (Electro-mechanical Brake) [1, 2], DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) [3] and EWB (Electric Wedge Brake) [4]. When the vehicle need braking in long period such as waiting for traffic light or downhill braking in those brake systems, the current will sustain very long time with very high level. This current will result in high temperature in motor, and will damage the power supplier. When a new DEHB is developing, a holding function is added in this DEHB. The holding function is self-energized when holding the brake, and automatic released after the brake. Advantageously, after activation of the holding function, the current delivered to the motor for braking is substantially decreased, especially, will be zero when the brake torque is not need to adjust.
Technical Paper

### Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

### Design of Robust Active Load-Dependent Vehicular Suspension Controller via Static Output Feedback

2013-09-24
2013-01-2367
In this paper, we focus on the active vehicular suspension controller design. A quarter-vehicle suspension system is employed in the system analysis and synthesis. Due to the difficulty and cost in the measuring of all the states, we only choose two variables to construct the feedback loop, that is, the control law is a static-output-feedback (SOF) control. However, the sensor reduction would induce challenges in the controller design. One of the main challenges is the NP-hard problem in the corresponding SOF controller design. In order to deal with this challenge, we propose a two-stage design method in which a state-feedback controller is firstly designed and then the state-feedback controller is used to decouple the nonlinear conditions. To better compensate for the varying vehicle load, a robust load-dependent control strategy is adopted. The proposed design methodology is applied to a suspension control example.