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Technical Paper

Active Noise Control Method Considering Auditory Characteristics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0993
In contrast to functionality and reliability, which are more and more assumed to be a natural and necessary condition of any vehicle, the performance of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) now belongs to those features which play an essential role for the customer's purchasing decision. Sound design and vehicle interior noise control are essential parts of NVH. One tool of the NVH solution toolbox is Active Noise Control (ANC). ANC technology aims to cancel unwanted noise by generating an “anti-noise” with equal amplitude and opposite phase. Owing to the fact that human hearing has selective sensitivity for different critical bands, a new control strategy of ANC, which selectively controls the noise of specific bandwidths according to the result of specific loudness and retains the part of noise created by the normal running of facilities, trying to attenuate the unwanted and unacceptable noise, has been proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Response and Structural Improvement for Heavy-Duty Truck Cab Deflectors

2019-01-14
2019-01-5004
Numerical simulations on the fluid-structure interaction were conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+ and ABAQUS. The aeroelastic responses of a deflector under several different working conditions were simulated utilizing finite volume and finite element methods to investigate the aeroelastic problem of automotive deflectors. Results showed that the structural response of a top deflector is minimal under the influence of aerodynamics given its large structural stiffness. The size of the top deflector was optimised by using thickness as a variable. The volume and quality of the top deflector were significantly reduced, and its lightweight performance was improved to satisfy the stiffness performance requirement. The vibration of a side deflector structure was mainly induced by the turbulence on the structure surface. The amplitude of vibration was small and the vibration gradually converged in a few seconds without obvious regularity.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0507
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Technical Paper

Combined Control Strategy for Engine Rotate Speed in the Shift Process of Automated Mechanical Transmission

2004-03-08
2004-01-0427
For the purpose of lessening fuel consumption, engine noise, shift jerk and clutch friction work in the shift process of Automatic Mechanical Transmission (AMT), a fuzzy-bang bang dual mode control strategy for engine rotate speed is put forward in this paper, which takes the advantages of time optimal control and fuzzy control. The combined control strategy is applied to the shift process control of AMT test minibus named SC6350 and proved to be successful by the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Interior Noise Contribution Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-1296
Noise excitation sources are different between electric vehicles and conventional vehicles due to their distinct propulsion system architecture. This work focuses on an interior noise contribution analysis by experimental measurements and synthesis approach using a methodology established based on the principle of noise path analysis. The obtained results show that the structure-borne noise from the tire-road excitation acts as a major contributor to the overall interior noise level, and the structure-borne noise from the power plant system contributes noticeably as well, whereas contributions from the electric motor and tire are relatively insignificant.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise Analysis of a Commercial Vehicle Cab by Using Finite Element Method and Boundary Element Methods

2016-09-27
2016-01-8051
In order to predict the interior noise of a commercial vehicle cab, a finite element model of a heavy commercial vehicle cab was established. An acoustic-structure coupling model of the cab was built based on experimentally validated structure model and acoustic model of a commercial vehicle cab. Moreover, based on the platform of Virtual. Lab, the acoustic field modes of the acoustic model of the commercial vehicle cab and the coupled modes of the acoustic-structure coupling model were analyzed by using the acoustic-structure coupling analysis technique. The excitation of the vehicle cab was tested at an average speed on an asphalt road. Then, the interior noise of the heavy commercial vehicle cab was predicted based on FEM-FEM method and FEM-BEM method with all the parameters and excitation. Furthermore, the predicted interior noise of the commercial vehicle cab was compared with the tested interior noise.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise Prediction and Analysis of Heavy Commercial Vehicle Cab

2011-09-13
2011-01-2241
The basic theory of statistical energy analysis (SEA) is introduced, a commercial heavy duty truck cab is divided into 35 subsystems applying SEA method, and a three dimensional SEA model of the commercial heavy duty truck cab is created. Three basic parameters including modal density, damping loss factor and coupling loss factor are calculated with analytical and experimental methods. The modal density of the regular wall plate of the cab is calculated with traditional formula. The damping loss factors of the regular and complicated plates are obtained using analytical method and steady energy stream method. Meanwhile, the coupling loss factors of structure-structure, structure-sound cavity, and cavity-cavity are also calculated. Four kinds of excitations are in the SEA model, including sound radiation excitation of engine, engine mount vibration excitation, road excitation and wind excitation.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Qualitative Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount for Vehicle Engine

2009-05-19
2009-01-2132
Hydraulically damped rubber mount (HDM) can effectively attenuate vibrations transmitting between automotive powertrain and body/chassis, and reduce interior noise of car compartment. This paper involves an analytical qualitative analysis approach of dynamics characteristics of HDM. Analysis of experimental results verifies the effectiveness of the qualitative analysis approach. Frequency- and amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristic of HDM are investigated to clarify working mechanism of HDM. The presented qualitative analysis approach provides a convenient performance adjustment guideline of HDM to meet vibration isolation requirements of powertrain mount system.
Technical Paper

Liquid Stream in the Rotary Valve of the Hydraulic Power Steering Gear

2007-10-30
2007-01-4237
Generally, noise will occur during steering with the hydraulic power steering system (hereinafter HPS). The noise producing in the rotary valve takes up a big proportion of the total one. To study the noise in the control valve, 2-D meshes of the flow field between the sleeve and the rotor were set up and a general CFD code-Fluent was used to analyze the flow inside the valve. The areas where the noise may be occurred were shown and some suggestions to silence the noise were given.
Journal Article

Modal Based Rotating Disc Model for Disc Brake Squeal

2015-04-14
2015-01-0665
Modelling of disc in brake squeal analysis is complicated because of the rotation of disc and the sliding contact between disc and pads. Many analytical or analytical numerical combined modeling methods have been developed considering the disc brake vibration and squeal as a moving load problem. Yet in the most common used complex eigenvalue analysis method, the moving load nature normally has been ignored. In this paper, a new modelling method for rotating disc from the point of view of modal is presented. First finite element model of stationary disc is built and modal parameters are calculated. Then the dynamic response of rotating disc which is excited and observed at spatial fixed positions is studied. The frequency response function is derived through space and time transformations. The equivalent modal parameter is extracted and expressed as the function of rotation speed and original stationary status modal parameters.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Interior Noise of an Automotive Body Based on Different Surrogate Models and NSGA-II

2018-04-03
2018-01-0146
This paper studies a multi-objective optimization design of interior noise for an automotive body. An acoustic-structure coupled model with materials and properties was established to predict the interior noise based on a passenger car. Moreover, three kinds of approximation models related damping thickness and the root mean square of the driver’s ear sound pressure level were established through Latin hypercube method and the corresponding experiments. The prediction accuracy was analyzed and compared for the approximate response surface model, Kriging model and Radial Basis Function neural network model. On this basis, multi-objective optimization of the vehicle interior noise was conducted by using NSGA-II. According to the optimization results, the damping composite structure was applied on the car body structure. Then, the comparison of sound pressure level response at driver’s ear location before and after optimization was performed at speed of 60 km/h on a smooth road.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1704
In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Sound Absorption Optimization of Porous Materials Using BP Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

2016-04-05
2016-01-0472
In recent years, the interior noise of automobile has been becoming a significant problem. In order to reduce the noise, porous materials have been widely applied in automobile manufacturing. In this study, the simulation method and optimal analysis are used to determine the optimum sound absorption of polyurethane foam. The experimental simulation is processed based on the Johnson-Allard model. In the model, the foam adheres to a hard wall. The incident wave is plane wave. The function of the model is to calculate the noise reduction coefficient of polyurethane foam with different thickness, density and porosity. The back propagation neural network coupled with genetic optimization technique is utilized to predict the optimum sound absorption. A developed back propagation neural network model is trained and tested by the simulation data.
Technical Paper

Structure Optimization and Interior Noise Reduction of Commercial Vehicle Cab

2012-09-24
2012-01-1928
In order to improve ride comfort and reduce interior noise of commercial vehicles, modal sensitivity analysis and optimization design of a commercial vehicle cab was carried out, which increased the first natural frequency of the optimized cab by 23.96%. The result of cab modal test verified the correctness of the finite element model and the effectiveness of the improving method. The structure-acoustic coupling model of the cab was established, and the acoustic response of the coupled sound field was predicted. The sound pressure level of the optimized cab was reduced. In comparison of the optimized cab with the original one, the optimization scheme was confirmed to be effective and reasonable.
Technical Paper

Study on Closed-Loop Coupling Model for Brake Squeal Concerning Disc Rotation

2016-09-18
2016-01-1922
Modelling of disc is crucial in analyzing brake squeal since the disc rotates past the non-rotating pads and the pads are coupled with different areas of the disc at different times. However, in most of the complex eigenvalue analysis of brake squeal, the effect of disc rotation was ignored. This paper proposes a closed-loop coupling model for brake squeal analysis. A modal parameter-based rotating disc model, whose dynamic behavior is represented by rotation speed-dependent equivalent modal parameters, is built through space and time-frequency transformation between reference and moving coordinate systems. The orthogonality of the equivalent modal parameters in state-space is derived. By performing modal synthesis in state-space, the rotating disc is incorporated into brake squeal closed-loop coupling model with other stationary components. Dynamic instability of the system is solved through complex eigenvalue analysis in state-space.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Flow Control and Wind Noise Reduction of Side-View Mirror

2018-04-03
2018-01-0744
It aims to study the unsteady flow characteristic of the side-view mirror wake field, and reduce the wind noise by means of unsteady flow control. In this paper, the PIV test in a wind tunnel is used to capture the unsteady flow in the wake field of the side-view mirror, which is used to verify the accuracy of the steady simulation method with RANS after being averaged. Then LES turbulence model is used to obtain the wind noise, and the unsteady flow characteristic like vortex shedding of the side-view mirror is studied. The results show that, in the wake of the side-view mirror, there is a vortex pair similar to Karman Vortex Street. In both horizontal and vertical sections, these two vortexes are respectively separated from the upper and lower edges of the side-view mirror. Accompanied by a significantly uncertain periodic shedding, they continue to extend back until dissipating.
Journal Article

Vehicle Interior Sound Quality Analysis by Using Grey Relational Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-1976
In this paper, the relationship was investigated between objective psychoacoustic parameters, A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL) and the results of the subjective evaluation by using grey relational analysis (GRA). The sounds were recorded with eight different passenger cars at four different running conditions. The sound quality indices were calculated, including loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation, and A-weighted SPL. Subjective evaluation was performed by thirty subjects using rating scale method. GRA was compared with traditional correlation analysis, and the comparison shows that some hidden information which could not be found in the traditional correlation analysis was revealed. In order to know the further relationship between fluctuation and subjective evaluation, another subjective evaluation was performed by the same 30 subjects. The result demonstrates that the relationship revealed from GRA is correct.
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