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Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0827
A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Journal Article

A New Method for Bus Drivers' Economic Efficiency Assessment

2015-09-29
2015-01-2843
Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by drivers' behaviors. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management. This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers' economic efficiency, considering driving conditions. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated. The driving pattern score could be calculated with these weights.
Technical Paper

A New Method to Accelerate Road Test Simulation on Multi-Axial Test Rig

2017-03-28
2017-01-0200
Road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the automobile industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for further improving the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method considering both the damage error and the runtime of the test on a multi-axial test rig. First, the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load in road data to reduce the runtime initially. The edited road load data could be reproduced on a multi-axial test rig successfully. Second, the rainflow matrices of strains on different proving ground roads are established and transformed into damage matrices based on the S-N curve and Miner rules using a reduction method. A standard simulation test for vehicle reliability procedure is established according to the proving ground schedule as a target to be accelerated.
Technical Paper

A New Type of Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering System for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1502
The earth's fossil energy is not limitless, and we should be taking advantage of the highly developed fields of science and technology to utilize it more efficiently and to create a fully environmentally friendly life. Considering the prodigious amount of vehicles in the world today, even a small improvement in their energy-saving performance could have a significant impact. In this paper, a new type of electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) system is described. It has two main advantages. First, it can significantly decrease the demand on the motor so that it can be used for a wider range of vehicles. Second, its pressure-flow characteristic can be programmed and is more flexible than hydraulic power steering (HPS) system. A prototype with a 500 W motor was applied to a truck with a front load of 2,700 kg, and static steer sweep tests were conducted to validate its feasibility.
Technical Paper

A Study on Nonlinear Stiffness Characteristic of Air Spring for a Bus

2002-11-18
2002-01-3092
Using the nonlinear finite element analysis, three nonlinear characteristics of the rubber gasbag of the air spring on the bus are thoroughly analyzed, including the nonlinear characteristic of the rubber gasbag with multi layers of composite materials, the nonlinear large displacement geometry characteristic of the rubber gasbag on working, and the nonlinear contact characteristic of the rubber gasbag when contacts the pedestal and the top cover plate. A model is build and the nonlinear characteristic of the air spring on the bus is analyzed using the ABAQUS software. At last, the article discusses parameters that influence on the characteristic of the air spring for the bus.
Technical Paper

An Elementary Simulation of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of Hydraulically Damped Rubber Mount of Car Engine

2001-04-30
2001-01-1453
Hydraulically damped rubber engine mounts (HDM) are an effective means of providing sufficient isolation from engine vibration while also providing significant damping to control the rigid body motions of the engine during normal driving conditions. This results in a system which exhibits a high degree of non-linearity in terms of both frequency and amplitude. The numerical simulation of vibration isolation characteristics of HDM is difficult due to the fluid-structure interaction between the main supporting rubber and fluid in chambers, the nonlinear material properties, the large deformation of rubber parts, structure contact problems among the inner parts, and the turbulent flow in the inertia track. In this paper an integrated numerical simulation analysis based on structural FEM and a lumped-parameter model of HDM is carried out.
Technical Paper

Balanced Suspension Thrust Rod Fatigue Life Prediction

2016-09-27
2016-01-8044
In order to predict the fatigue life of thrust rod heavy duty commercial vehicle balanced suspension, based on the continuum mechanics theory, the fatigue life prediction model of rubber with equivalent effect as damage parameter is established. Based on the equivalent stress and fatigue cumulative damage theory, the fatigue damage evolution equation of rubber material expressed by stress is derived by using the strain energy function. The general fatigue life model is established by using the maximum logarithmic principal strain as the damage parameter. The finite element model of the thrust rod is established, and the stress distribution of the spherical hinge rubber layer and the easy damage area are analyzed. Based on the equivalent stress calculation results and the axial tension stress and strain data of the rubber material, the accuracy of the results of the finite element calculation is verified.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastics with Local Deformation Measurement

2012-04-16
2012-01-0040
In quasi-static tension and compression tests of thermoplastics, full-field strain distribution on the gage section of the specimen can be captured using the two-dimensional digital image correlation method. By loading the test specimens made of a talc-filled and impact-modified polypropylene up to tensile failure and large compressive strains, this study has revealed that inhomogeneous deformation within the gage section occurs quite early for both test types. This leads to the challenge of characterizing the mechanical properties - some mechanical properties such as stress-strain relationship and fracture strain could depend on the measured section length and location. To study this problem, the true stress versus true strain curves determined locally in different regions within the gage length are compared.
Journal Article

Characterization of Metal Foil in Anisotropic Fracture Behavior with Dynamic Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-0108
Metal foil is a widely used material in the automobile industry, which not only is the honeycomb barrier material but is also used as current collectors in Li-ion batteries. Plenty of studies proved that the mechanical property of the metal foil is quite different from that of the metal sheet because of the size effect on microscopic scale, as the metal foil shows a larger fracture stress and a lower ductility than the metal sheet. Meanwhile, the fracture behavior and accurate constitutive model of the metal foil with the consideration of the strain rate effect are widely concerned in further studies of battery safety and the honeycomb. This article conducted experiments on 8011H18 aluminum foil, aiming to explore the quasi-static and dynamic tension testing method and the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the very thin foil. Two metal foil dog-bone specimens and three types of notched specimens were tested with a strain rate ranging from 2 × 10−4/s to 40/s and various stress states.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Charge Sustaining Hybrid Powertrain for Motorsports

2018-04-03
2018-01-0416
The automotive industry is aggressively pursuing fuel efficiency improvements through hybridization of production vehicles, and there are an increasing number of racing series adopting similar architectures to maintain relevance with current passenger car trends. Hybrid powertrains offer both performance and fuel economy benefits in a motorsport setting, but they greatly increase control complexity and add additional degrees of freedom to the design optimization process. The increased complexity creates opportunity for performance gains, but simulation based tools are necessary since hybrid powertrain design and control strategies are closely coupled and their optimal interactions are not straightforward to predict. One optimization-related advantage that motorsports applications have over production vehicles is that the power demand of circuit racing has strong repeatability due to the nature of the track and the professional skill-level of the driver.
Technical Paper

Costs, Benefits and Range: Application of Lightweight Technology in Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0724
The lightweight technology takes an important role in electric vehicle(EV) energy conservation domain, as lighter vehicle means less energy consumed under same condition. In this paper, the typical energy requirement in an NEDC cycle is investigated, and the relationship between lightweight rate and energy consumption reduction effectiveness is given. The benefit of lightweight to EV come from the less battery cost because of less energy requirement. For EVs, with less battery cost, a certain lightweight rate can be obtained with less total cost. On the other hand, if lightweight rate is very high, the battery cost won't be able to cover the lightweight cost. Besides, the relationship between driving range and battery capacity is discussed in this paper. It is found that there is a limitation of EV driving range, which is determined by the battery energy density.
Journal Article

Cyber-Physical System Based Optimization Framework for Intelligent Powertrain Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0426
The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
Technical Paper

DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) Having a Holding Function

2015-03-10
2015-01-0017
Many types of brake by wire systems have been developed in past years, such as EMB (Electro-mechanical Brake) [1, 2], DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) [3] and EWB (Electric Wedge Brake) [4]. When the vehicle need braking in long period such as waiting for traffic light or downhill braking in those brake systems, the current will sustain very long time with very high level. This current will result in high temperature in motor, and will damage the power supplier. When a new DEHB is developing, a holding function is added in this DEHB. The holding function is self-energized when holding the brake, and automatic released after the brake. Advantageously, after activation of the holding function, the current delivered to the motor for braking is substantially decreased, especially, will be zero when the brake torque is not need to adjust.
Technical Paper

Design, Testing and Analysis of a Novel Multiple-Disc Magnetorheological Braking Applied in Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0724
This paper presents a new magnetorheological braking which can be used in vehicles. Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is a novel material which can be used in different components of vehicle. Magneto-rheological fluids (MRF) are suspensions of micron size whose yield stress varies rapidly as the change of magnetic field. The use of MRF in vehicles has been gaining popular recently due to its strong rheological effect, fast response and low energy consumption. Besides, these performances give designers more choice in automotive designs. However, most of the related research of MRF brake is about the construction of small prototype to verify its rheological performance. As a result, research progress is limited to calculation and simulation which make the braking force of prototype can hardly meet the requirement of vehicle due to a lack of optimal design and the understanding of MRF in the situation of high sheer stress and magnetic field.
Technical Paper

Deterioration Characteristic of Catalyzed DPF Applied on Diesel Truck Durable Ageing

2018-09-10
2018-01-1701
In this paper, it was researched the degradation characteristics of catalytic performance of three kinds of DPFs (C1, C2 and C3, with precious metal concentrations being 15, 25 and 35 g/ft3 respectively) after diesel truck aging. It is found out that the crystallinity of three kinds of DPF samples (Used) in full vehicle aging was higher than that of fresh samples (Fresh) and aged samples (Aged) in the laboratory. Compared with Fresh samples, the concentration of Pt atom in precious metal on the surface of Aged and Used samples tends to decrease in most cases. Activities to CO and C3H8 of Aged and Used samples of three kinds of DPFs had all been degraded, and activity degradation showed a substantial correlation with concentration reduction rate of precious metal on the carrier surface. NO2 productivity of Used samples all rose. Crystallinity of DPF samples after full vehicle aging in Inlet, Middle and Outlet areas successively increased.
Technical Paper

Development of a Gas-Phase LPG Injection System for a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3260
This paper presents the development of an electronic control LPG gas injection system and its application in a small SI engine. The tests results show that the developed LPG gas injection system can meet the needs for the goal of high engine power output and low exhaust emissions based on the engine bench tests. With the LPG electronic gas injection system, the air-fuel ratio can be optimized based on the requirements and CO and NOx emission levels are decreased significantly compared with the LPG mechanical mixer fuel supply system, based on the same HC emission levels. With the new gas phase LPG electronic control injection system, the HC emission level is controlled below the 300 ppm under most engine conditions and under 200 ppm when the engine speed is over 3000 r/min. The NOx emission level is under 2600 ppm in the whole range of engine operation conditions and is decreased by 2000 ppm compared with the LPG mechanical mixer system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Detergent on Injector Deposit Formation and Engine Emissions in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2247
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Oil and Gasoline Properties on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in a Thermal Research Engine (TRE) and an Optical Rapid Compression Machine (RCM)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0720
High boost and direct injection are effective ways for energy saving in gasoline engines. However, the occurrence of super-knock at high load has become a main obstacle for further improving power density and fuel economy. It has been known that super-knock can be induced by pre-ignition, and oil droplet auto-ignition is found to be one of the possible mechanisms. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder thermal research engine (TRE), in which different types of oil and surrogates were directly injected into the cylinder and then led to pre-ignition and super-knock. The effect of oil injection timing, oil injection quantity, different gasoline and different oil were tested. All the oil in this work could induce pre-ignition, even though their combustion phasing was much later than that in the case of n-hexadecane.
Technical Paper

Effects of Sinusoidal Whole Body Vibration Frequency on Drivers' Muscle Responses

2015-04-14
2015-01-1396
Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG).
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