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Technical Paper

Effect of Oil and Gasoline Properties on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in a Thermal Research Engine (TRE) and an Optical Rapid Compression Machine (RCM)

High boost and direct injection are effective ways for energy saving in gasoline engines. However, the occurrence of super-knock at high load has become a main obstacle for further improving power density and fuel economy. It has been known that super-knock can be induced by pre-ignition, and oil droplet auto-ignition is found to be one of the possible mechanisms. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder thermal research engine (TRE), in which different types of oil and surrogates were directly injected into the cylinder and then led to pre-ignition and super-knock. The effect of oil injection timing, oil injection quantity, different gasoline and different oil were tested. All the oil in this work could induce pre-ignition, even though their combustion phasing was much later than that in the case of n-hexadecane.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermodynamic Conditions on Spark Ignition to Compression Ignition in Ultra-Lean Mixture Using Rapid Compression Machine

Compression ratio and specific heat ratio are two dominant factors influencing engine thermal efficiency. Therefore, ultra-lean burn may be one method to deal with increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations in the approaching future. To achieve high efficiency and clean combustion, innovative combustion modes have been applied on research engines including homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), and gasoline direct-injection compression ignition (GDCI), etc. Compared to HCCI, SACI can extend the load range and more easily control combustion phase while it is constrained by the limit of flame propagation. For SACI with ultra-lean burn in engines, equivalence ratio (φ), rich-fuel mixture around spark plug, and supercharging are three essentials for combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lean Mixture Combustion at Ultra-High Compression Ratios in a Rapid Compression Machine

In order to meet increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations, more attentions are paid to improve engine efficiency. A large amount of energy-saving technologies have been applied in automotive field especially in gasoline engines. It is well known that lean burn and ultra-high compression ratio technologies are two basic and important methods to increase efficiency. In this paper, a rapid compression machine was employed to study combustion process of lean iso-octane mixture at ultra-high compression ratios (16 to 19:1). Regardless of flammability of the mixture, spark was triggered at the timing right after the end of compression, then, the flame propagation and/or auto-ignition can be recorded using high-speed photography simultaneously. The effects of equivalence ratio (φ), compression ratio (ε), dilution ratio, and effective temperature (Teff) on the combustion process was investigated.
Technical Paper

Improving Combustion and Emission Characteristics in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine by Using Pistons Enhancing Turbulence

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), because of its low cost, high H/C ratio, and high octane number, has great potential in automotive industry, especially for heavy-duty commercial vehicles. However, relative slow flame speed of natural gas leads to long combustion duration and low thermal efficiency and tends to cause knock combustion at high load, which will aggravate engine thermal load and reliability. Enhancing turbulence intensity in combustion chamber is an effective way to accelerate flame propagation speed and improve combustion performance. In this study, the flow simulations of several piston bowls with different inner-convex forms were carried out using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) software CONVERGE. The numerical results showed the piston bowls with inner-convex could disturb the charge swirl motion and enhance turbulence of different intensity. A hexagram geometry bowl was proved to have the best function in strengthening turbulence intensity.