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Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of the Thermal Efficiency of 1977 and 1978 Model Year Vehicles Under Chassis Dynamometer Conditions

1978-02-01
780936
Comparison of vehicle thermal efficiency and engine load factor for 1977 and 1978 model year certification vehicles shows low correlation. At any load factor, the spread in thermal efficiencies was on the order of 2 to 1. These facts suggest that, with existing technologies, vehicle manufacturers can realize a significant improvement in fuel economy through better matching of engines (specific fuel consumption), transmissions and final drive ratios to vehicle power requirements.
Technical Paper

A Quality Control Technique for Correlating Exhaust Gas Analysis Systems

1977-02-01
770138
A simple, inexpensive, critical flow blender has been developed for filling a tedlar bag with controllable concentrations of HC, NOx, CO2, and CO gases at levels encountered in automobile emissions testing. According to a daily schedule, a technician takes the bag to all analyzer sites in the laboratory for analysis. The concentrations indicated by each site are compared to the overall averages. The results are stored in a computerized data base from which control charts, statistical analyses, and interpretations of significant differences among test sites can be made. The precision, accuracy, and statistical interpretations of the data are discussed.
Journal Article

Alternative Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification

2015-09-29
2015-01-2768
In 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a new steady-state engine dynamometer test procedure by which heavy-duty engine manufacturers would be required to create engine fuel rate versus engine speed and torque “maps”.[1] These maps would then be used within the agencies' Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM)[2] for full vehicle certification to the agencies' proposed heavy-duty fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. This paper presents an alternative to the agencies' proposal, where an engine is tested over the same duty cycles simulated in GEM. This paper explains how a range of vehicle configurations could be specified for GEM to generate engine duty cycles that would then be used for engine testing.
Technical Paper

Alternative Techniques for Detecting Excessive Evaporative Emissions During I/M Tests

1996-10-01
962093
A modified constant volume sampling (CVS) system has been used to sample fugitive hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to determine whether such systems can help identify excess vehicular HC sources, such as leaking gas caps. The approach was successful in distinguishing tightly sealed, marginally leaking and grossly leaking caps. The technique may be useful in motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) facilities as a less intrusive alternative to techniques requiring pressurization of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Differing Filter Face Velocities on Particulate Mass Weight from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960253
Due to continuing reductions in EPA's emission standard values for exhaust particulate emissions, industry production has shifted towards engines that produce very low amounts of particulate emissions. Thus, it is very possible that future engines will challenge the error range of the current instrumentation and procedures used to measure particulate emissions by being designed to produce extremely low levels of particulates. When low particulate emitting engines are sampled at low flowrates, the resulting filter loadings may violate the minimum filter loading recommendation in the Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure [1]. Conversely, higher flow rates may be an inappropriate option for increasing filter loading due to the possibility of stripping volatile organic compounds from the particulate sample or otherwise artificially reducing the accumulated mass [2].
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0319
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Technical Paper

CRC Carbonyl Emissions Analysis Round Robin Program - Phase II

1997-05-01
971609
A second carbonyl round robin was conducted to enable participating laboratories doing routine analysis of carbonyls in vehicle exhaust emissions to assess their analytical capabilities. Three sets of solutions in acetonitrile containing varying number and amounts of standard DNPH-carbonyls were prepared. The parent carbonyls are known components of vehicle exhaust emissions. The samples were designed to challenge the capabilities of the participants to separate, identify and quantify all the components. The fourteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. All participants were able to separate and identify the C3 carbonyls; a few were not able to separate MEK from butyraldehyde and methacrolein from butyraldehyde; and many were not able to separate adequately the isomers of tolualdehyde. Inadequate separation and lack of appropriate standards resulted in a few misidentifications.
Technical Paper

Compound Injection to Assure the Performance of Motor Vehicle Emissions Sampling Systems

1996-05-01
961118
There are many sources of variability when sampling motor vehicle emissions, including intermittant losses to “wetted” sampling system surfaces if water condensation occurs and thermal decomposition if sampling system surfaces get excessively hot. The risk of losses varies during typical transient speed emissions tests and depends upon many variables such as temperature, pressure, exhaust dilution ratio, dilution air humidity, fuel composition, and emissions composition. Procedures are described for injection of known concentrations of compounds of interest into transient motor vehicle exhaust for the purpose of characterizing losses between the vehicle tailpipe and emissions analyzer.
Technical Paper

Detection of Catalyst Failure On-Vehicle Using the Dual Oxygen Sensor Method

1991-02-01
910561
On-vehicle proof-of-concept testing was conducted to evaluate the ability of the dual oxygen sensor catalyst evaluation method to identify serious losses in catalyst efficiency under actual vehicle operating conditions. The dual oxygen sensor method, which utilizes a comparison between an upstream oxygen sensor and an oxygen sensor placed downstream of the catalyst, was initially studied by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under steady-state operating conditions on an engine dynamometer and reported in Clemmens, et al. (1).* At the time that study was released, questions were raised as to whether the technological concepts developed on a test fixture could be transferred to a vehicle operating under normal transient conditions.
Journal Article

Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 3 – Results and Validation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0938
Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance on in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during real-world operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to more conventional, laboratory based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA).
Journal Article

Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- and Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

2015-09-29
2015-01-2771
In designing a regulatory vehicle simulation program for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption, it is necessary to estimate the performance of technologies, verify compliance with the regulatory standards, and estimate the overall benefits of the program. The agencies (EPA/NHTSA) developed the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) to serve these purposes. GEM is currently being used to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the Phase 1 rulemaking for all heavy-duty vehicles in the United States except pickups and vans, which require a chassis dynamometer test for certification. While the version of the GEM used in Phase 1 contains most of the technical and mathematical features needed to run a vehicle simulation, the model lacks sophistication. For example, Phase 1 GEM only models manual transmissions and it does not include engine torque interruption during gear shifting.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Condition on FTP Emissions and In-Use Repairability

1992-02-01
920822
Twenty in-use vehicles that had failed the I/M test in the State of Michigan were inspected for engine mechanical condition as well as the state of the emission control system. Mass emission tests were conducted before and after repairs to the emission control system. The internal engine condition (i.e., high or low levels of cylinder leakage, or compression difference) showed little effect on the ability of the repaired vehicles to achieve moderate mass emission levels. Nine of the twenty vehicles were recruited after three years, and with the exception of tampering, the original emission control system repairs proved to be durable.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single Wide Tires and Trailer Aerodynamics on Fuel Economy and NOx Emissions of Class 8 Line-Haul Tractor-Trailers

2005-11-01
2005-01-3551
We hypothesize that components designed to improve fuel economy by reducing power requirements should also result in a decrease in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Fuel economy and NOx emissions of a pair of class 8 tractor-trailers were measured on a test track to evaluate the effects of single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices. Fuel economy was measured using a modified version of SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and correlated to fuel meter measurements. Tests were conducted using drive cycles simulating highway operations at 55 mph and 65 mph and suburban stop-and-go traffic. The tests showed a negative correlation (significant at p < 0.05) between fuel economy and NOx emissions. Single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices resulted in increased fuel economy and decreased NOx emissions relative to the baseline tests.
Technical Paper

Emission Patterns of Diesel-Powered Passenger Cars - Part II

1977-02-01
770168
An experimental program was conducted to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions from a 1975 Peugeot 504D light duty diesel-powered vehicle. The vehicle was tested over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, Highway Fuel Economy Test, and Sulfate Emissions Test driving cycles using four different fuels covering a fair range of composition, density, and sulfur content. In addition to fuel economy and regulated gaseous emission measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, emission measurements were also obtained for non-regulated pollutants including sulfur dioxide, sulfates, aldehydes, benzo[a]pyrene, carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, nonreactive hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The results are discussed in terms of emission trends due to either fuel type or driving cycle influence.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Real-World Fuel Economy on Heavy Duty Vehicles using a Portable Emissions Measurement System

2006-10-31
2006-01-3543
Current SAE practices for evaluating potential improvements in fuel economy on heavy-duty vehicles rely on gravimetric measurements of fuel tanks. However, the recent evolution of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) offers an alternative means of evaluating real-world fuel economy that may be faster and more cost effective. This paper provides a direct comparison of these two methods based on a recent EPA study conducted at Southwest Research Institute. More than 228 on-road tests were performed on two pairs of class 8 tractor-trailers according to SAE test procedure J1321 in an assessment of various chassis components designed to reduce drag losses on the vehicle. During these tests, SEMTECH-D™ portable emissions measurement systems from Sensor's, Incorporated were operating in each of the vehicles to evaluate emissions and to provide a redundant measure of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

1975-02-01
750901
This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from In-Use Passenger Cars Equipped with Three-Way Catalysts

1980-06-01
800823
This paper presents the results of an exhaust emission testing program conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The test vehicles were 1978–1980 passenger cars of various makes and models. Each of the 686 vehicles tested was equipped with a three-way catalyst system and was certified to California standards. The purpose of the program was to gather information on current systems in customer use for projections on the ability of the three-way system to meet emission standards of the future. The results indicate that these systems are capable of achieving low emission levels although high levels are also possible due to defects, deterioration, or tampering.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements and NOx Reduction by Reduction of Parasitic Losses: Effect of Engine Design

2006-10-31
2006-01-3474
Reducing aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance in trucks using cooled EGR engines meeting EPA 2004 emissions standards has been observed to result in increases in fuel economy and decreases in NOx emissions. We report here on tests conducted using vehicles equipped a non-EGR engine meeting EPA 2004 emission standards and an electronically-controlled engine meeting EPA 1998 emissions standards. The effects of trailer fairings and single-wide tires on fuel economy and NOx emissions were tested using SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and by the gravimetric method specified by test procedure J1321. Fuel consumption decreased and fuel economy increased by a maximum of about 10 percent, and NOx emissions decreased by a maximum of 20 percent relative to baseline.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy of In-Use Passenger Cars: Laboratory and Road

1981-06-01
810780
This report describes an evaluation of fuel economy of in-use passenger cars conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during 1980. A total of 440 vehicles from the 1975-1980 model years were obtained from private owners in several cities. Each vehicle was tested according to the Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. After the laboratory testing, the owners were asked to record their next four fuel purchases on a reply postcard. The results from the survey were analyzed and compared with the test results, estimates by the owner, and the values published in EPA's Gas Mileage Guide.
Technical Paper

Identifying Excess Emitters with a Remote Sensing Device: A Preliminary Analysis

1991-08-01
911672
There has been considerable interest in applying remote measuring methods to sample in-use vehicle emissions, and to characterize fleet emission behavior. A Remote Sensing Device (RSD) was used to measure on-road carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from approximately 350 in-use vehicles that had undergone transient mass emission testing at a centralized I/M lane. On-road hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were also measured by the RSD on about 50 of these vehicles. Analysis of the data indicates that the RSD identified a comparable number of the high CO emitters as the two speed I/M test only when an RSD cutpoint much more stringent than current practice was used. Both RSD and I/M had significant errors of omission in identifying High CO Emitters based on the mass emission test. The test data were also used to study the ability of the RSD to characterize fleet CO emissions.
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