Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

42 Catalytic Reduction of Marine Sterndrive Engine Emissions

A 2001 General Motors 4.3 liter V-6 marine engine was baseline emissions tested and then equipped with catalysts. Emission reduction effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also explored. Because of a U.S. Coast Guard requirement that inboard engine surface temperatures be kept below 200°F, the engine's exhaust system, including the catalysts, was water-cooled. Engine emissions were measured using the ISO-8178-E4 5-mode steady-state test for recreational marine engines. In baseline configuration, the engine produced 16.6 g HC+NOx/kW-hr, and 111 g CO/kW-hr. In closed-loop control with catalysts, HC+NOx emissions were reduced by 75 percent to 4.1 g/kW-hr, and CO emissions were reduced by 36 percent to 70 g/kW-hr of CO. The catalyzed engine was then installed in a Sea Ray 190 boat, and tested for water reversion on both fresh and salt water using National Marine Manufacturers Association procedures.
Technical Paper

A Method for Comparing Transient NOx Emissions With Weighted Steady State Test Results

This paper describes a method used to compare the emissions from transient operation of an engine with the emissions from steady state operating modes of the engine. Weightings were assigned to each mode based on the transient cycle under evaluation. The method of assigning the weightings for each mode took into account several factors, including the distance between each second of the transient cycle's speed-and-torque point requests (in a speed vs. torque coordinate system) and the given mode. Two transient cycles were chosen. The transient cycles were taken from actual in-use data collected on nonroad engines during in-field operation. The steady state modes selected were based on both International Standard Organization (ISO) test modes, as well as, augmentation based on contour plots of the emissions from nonroad diesel engines. Twenty-four (24) steady-state modes were used. The transient cycle's speed-and-torque points are used to weight each steady state mode in the method.
Technical Paper

A Quality Control Technique for Correlating Exhaust Gas Analysis Systems

A simple, inexpensive, critical flow blender has been developed for filling a tedlar bag with controllable concentrations of HC, NOx, CO2, and CO gases at levels encountered in automobile emissions testing. According to a daily schedule, a technician takes the bag to all analyzer sites in the laboratory for analysis. The concentrations indicated by each site are compared to the overall averages. The results are stored in a computerized data base from which control charts, statistical analyses, and interpretations of significant differences among test sites can be made. The precision, accuracy, and statistical interpretations of the data are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Potential Impact of Some Unregulated Motor Vehicle Emissions

Studies of emissions from vehicles equipped with catalysts have shown that some unregulated emissions can increase when a catalyst is used. One example of this is sulfuric acid, which has been studied extensively. Other unregulated emissions include ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In a number of studies, these unregulated pollutant emissions have been measured from light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines. These emission levels were used in air quality dispersion models to predict the resultant air quality levels. The ambient concentrations predicted for each pollutant were then compared to suggested concentrations at which adverse health effects may be found to determine if additional monitoring or control would be indicated for these pollutants. It was determined that mobile source emissions of sulfuric acid, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia do not in general result in ambient levels of concern for the air quality situations studied.
Journal Article

Alternative Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification

In 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a new steady-state engine dynamometer test procedure by which heavy-duty engine manufacturers would be required to create engine fuel rate versus engine speed and torque “maps”.[1] These maps would then be used within the agencies' Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM)[2] for full vehicle certification to the agencies' proposed heavy-duty fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. This paper presents an alternative to the agencies' proposal, where an engine is tested over the same duty cycles simulated in GEM. This paper explains how a range of vehicle configurations could be specified for GEM to generate engine duty cycles that would then be used for engine testing.
Technical Paper

Alternative Techniques for Detecting Excessive Evaporative Emissions During I/M Tests

A modified constant volume sampling (CVS) system has been used to sample fugitive hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to determine whether such systems can help identify excess vehicular HC sources, such as leaking gas caps. The approach was successful in distinguishing tightly sealed, marginally leaking and grossly leaking caps. The technique may be useful in motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) facilities as a less intrusive alternative to techniques requiring pressurization of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Differing Filter Face Velocities on Particulate Mass Weight from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Due to continuing reductions in EPA's emission standard values for exhaust particulate emissions, industry production has shifted towards engines that produce very low amounts of particulate emissions. Thus, it is very possible that future engines will challenge the error range of the current instrumentation and procedures used to measure particulate emissions by being designed to produce extremely low levels of particulates. When low particulate emitting engines are sampled at low flowrates, the resulting filter loadings may violate the minimum filter loading recommendation in the Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure [1]. Conversely, higher flow rates may be an inappropriate option for increasing filter loading due to the possibility of stripping volatile organic compounds from the particulate sample or otherwise artificially reducing the accumulated mass [2].
Technical Paper

Automotive Hydrocarbon Emission Patterns in the Measurement of Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Emission Rates

The advent of emission control technology has resulted in significant changes in both the total mass and detailed patterns of hydrocarbons emitted from automobiles. Emission rates of 56 hydrocarbons from 22 motor vehicles, including catalyst and noncatalyst configurations, were determined for the Federal Urban Driving Cycle. An increased relative abundance of methane is indicated for vehicles equipped with oxidation catalysts. In view of the photochemically non-reactive nature of methane, simple and economic procedures for determination of vehicle nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rates are evaluated. In general the procedures evaluated require independent total hydrocarbon and methane analysis, with the nonmethane hydrocarbon level calculated by difference. The procedures are evaluated by comparison of indicated nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rates with rates obtained by summation of individual compound rates determined by advanced gas chromatographic procedures.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Technical Paper

CRC Carbonyl Emissions Analysis Round Robin Program - Phase II

A second carbonyl round robin was conducted to enable participating laboratories doing routine analysis of carbonyls in vehicle exhaust emissions to assess their analytical capabilities. Three sets of solutions in acetonitrile containing varying number and amounts of standard DNPH-carbonyls were prepared. The parent carbonyls are known components of vehicle exhaust emissions. The samples were designed to challenge the capabilities of the participants to separate, identify and quantify all the components. The fourteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. All participants were able to separate and identify the C3 carbonyls; a few were not able to separate MEK from butyraldehyde and methacrolein from butyraldehyde; and many were not able to separate adequately the isomers of tolualdehyde. Inadequate separation and lack of appropriate standards resulted in a few misidentifications.
Technical Paper

Can Auto Technicians be Trained to Repair IM240 Emission Failures?

Eleven experienced commercial automotive technicians were recruited and trained to repair IM240 emission failures using a specially developed 30 hour course. The training course emphasized the use of an oscilloscope and a flow chart and wave form strategy to repair vehicles. Each technicians' performance was evaluated based on the repair of three or four in-use Arizona IM240 failures. Pre-training and post-training written tests were also administered. Results from this limited study were encouraging. After the technician training, HC and CO emission levels were reduced by 69% and NOx by 58%. More importantly, most of the technicians learned some new and useful diagnostic and equipment skills which they can immediately apply to their businesses. They also became more motivated to tackle the challenge of repairing vehicles to low transient emissions, and aware of the existence and use of new sophisticated diagnostic tools such as oscilloscopes.
Technical Paper

Catalysts for Methanol Vehicles

A Methanol catalyst test program has been conducted in two phases. The purpose of Phase I was to determine whether a base metal or lightly-loaded noble metal catalyst could reduce Methanol engine exhaust emissions with an efficiency comparable to conventional gasoline engine catalytic converters. The goal of Phase II was the reduction of aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions to very low levels by the use of noble metal catalysts with catalyst loadings higher than those in Phase I. Catalysts tested in Phase I were evaluated as three-way converters as well as under simulated oxidation catalyst conditions. Phase II catalysts were tested as three-way converters only. For Phase I, the most consistently efficient catalysts over the range of pollutants measured were platinum/rhodium configurations. None of the catalysts tested in Phase I were able to meet a NOx level of 1 gram per mile when operated in the oxidation mode.
Technical Paper

Compound Injection to Assure the Performance of Motor Vehicle Emissions Sampling Systems

There are many sources of variability when sampling motor vehicle emissions, including intermittant losses to “wetted” sampling system surfaces if water condensation occurs and thermal decomposition if sampling system surfaces get excessively hot. The risk of losses varies during typical transient speed emissions tests and depends upon many variables such as temperature, pressure, exhaust dilution ratio, dilution air humidity, fuel composition, and emissions composition. Procedures are described for injection of known concentrations of compounds of interest into transient motor vehicle exhaust for the purpose of characterizing losses between the vehicle tailpipe and emissions analyzer.
Technical Paper

Detection of Catalyst Failure On-Vehicle Using the Dual Oxygen Sensor Method

On-vehicle proof-of-concept testing was conducted to evaluate the ability of the dual oxygen sensor catalyst evaluation method to identify serious losses in catalyst efficiency under actual vehicle operating conditions. The dual oxygen sensor method, which utilizes a comparison between an upstream oxygen sensor and an oxygen sensor placed downstream of the catalyst, was initially studied by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under steady-state operating conditions on an engine dynamometer and reported in Clemmens, et al. (1).* At the time that study was released, questions were raised as to whether the technological concepts developed on a test fixture could be transferred to a vehicle operating under normal transient conditions.
Journal Article

Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 3 – Results and Validation

Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance on in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during real-world operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to more conventional, laboratory based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA).
Journal Article

Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- and Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

In designing a regulatory vehicle simulation program for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption, it is necessary to estimate the performance of technologies, verify compliance with the regulatory standards, and estimate the overall benefits of the program. The agencies (EPA/NHTSA) developed the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) to serve these purposes. GEM is currently being used to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the Phase 1 rulemaking for all heavy-duty vehicles in the United States except pickups and vans, which require a chassis dynamometer test for certification. While the version of the GEM used in Phase 1 contains most of the technical and mathematical features needed to run a vehicle simulation, the model lacks sophistication. For example, Phase 1 GEM only models manual transmissions and it does not include engine torque interruption during gear shifting.
Technical Paper

EPA HDEWG Program - Statistical Analysis

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formed a Heavy-Duty Engine Working Group (HDEWG) in the Mobile Sources Technical Advisory Subcommittee in 1995. The goal of the HDEWG was to help define the role of the fuel in meeting the future emissions standards in advanced technology engines (beyond 2004 regulated emissions levels). A three-phase program was developed. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of the data collected in the Phase II program. Included is a description of the design of the fuel test matrix, and a listing of the regression equations developed to predict emissions as a function of fuel density, cetane number, monoaromatics, and polyaromatics. Also included is a description of selected analyses of the emissions from a smaller set of fuel data that allowed direct comparison of the effects of natural and boosted cetane number.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Condition on FTP Emissions and In-Use Repairability

Twenty in-use vehicles that had failed the I/M test in the State of Michigan were inspected for engine mechanical condition as well as the state of the emission control system. Mass emission tests were conducted before and after repairs to the emission control system. The internal engine condition (i.e., high or low levels of cylinder leakage, or compression difference) showed little effect on the ability of the repaired vehicles to achieve moderate mass emission levels. Nine of the twenty vehicles were recruited after three years, and with the exception of tampering, the original emission control system repairs proved to be durable.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single Wide Tires and Trailer Aerodynamics on Fuel Economy and NOx Emissions of Class 8 Line-Haul Tractor-Trailers

We hypothesize that components designed to improve fuel economy by reducing power requirements should also result in a decrease in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Fuel economy and NOx emissions of a pair of class 8 tractor-trailers were measured on a test track to evaluate the effects of single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices. Fuel economy was measured using a modified version of SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and correlated to fuel meter measurements. Tests were conducted using drive cycles simulating highway operations at 55 mph and 65 mph and suburban stop-and-go traffic. The tests showed a negative correlation (significant at p < 0.05) between fuel economy and NOx emissions. Single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices resulted in increased fuel economy and decreased NOx emissions relative to the baseline tests.
Technical Paper

Effects of Steady-State and Transient Operation on Exhaust Emissions from Nonroad and Highway Diesel Engines

Six heavy-duty diesel engines were tested for exhaust emissions on the ISO 8-mode nonroad steady-state duty cycle and the U.S. FTP highway transient test cycle. Two of these engines were baseline nonroad engines, two were Tier 1 nonroad engines, and two were highway engines. One of the Tier 1 nonroad engines and both of the highway engines were also tested on three transient cycles developed for nonroad engines. In addition, published data were collected from an additional twenty diesel engines that were tested on the 8-mode as well as at least one transient test cycle. Data showed that HC and PM emissions from diesel engines are very sensitive to transient operation while NOx emissions are much less so. Although one of the nonroad transient duty cycles showed lower PM than the steady-state duty cycles, all four of the other cycles showed much higher PM emissions than the steady-state cycle.