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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Journal Article

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0599
Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this article, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

A Maneuver-Based Threat Assessment Strategy for Collision Avoidance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0598
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are being developed for more and more complicated application scenarios, which often require more predictive strategies with better understanding of driving environment. Taking traffic vehicles’ maneuvers into account can greatly expand the beforehand time span for danger awareness. This paper presents a maneuver-based strategy to vehicle collision threat assessment. First, a maneuver-based trajectory prediction model (MTPM) is built, in which near-future trajectories of ego vehicle and traffic vehicles are estimated with the combination of vehicle’s maneuvers and kinematic models that correspond to every maneuver. The most probable maneuvers of ego vehicle and each traffic vehicles are modeled and inferred via Hidden Markov Models with mixture of Gaussians outputs (GMHMM). Based on the inferred maneuvers, trajectory sets consisting of vehicles’ position and motion states are predicted by kinematic models.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Technical Paper

ABS Control Algorithm Based on Direct Slip Rate for Hybrid Brake System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0830
The brake-by-wire system (BBW) is better match the new energy vehicle in the future direction of development. The electro-mechanical brake (EMB) is lack of the brake failure backup and need a high 42 V voltage for the power supply. This paper presents a new brake-by-wire hybrid brake system (HBS) with the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) equipped on the front wheels and the EMB equipped on the rear wheels. The combination of these two brake-by-wire systems has advantages of both the EHB and EMB system. The EMB on the rear wheels totally removing the rear pipes and can be simply mounted. In addition, since the need of brake torque on the rear axle is relatively small, the power supply of EMB can be reduced to 12 V. Meanwhile, the EHB on the front wheels has the failure backup function through the hydraulic line. The HBS can quickly and accurately regulate four wheels brake force of vehicles which can well meet the requirement of antilock brake system (ABS).
Journal Article

An Indirect TPMS Algorithm Based on Tire Resonance Frequency Estimated by AR Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0459
Proper tire pressure is very important for multiple driving performance of a car, and it is necessary to monitor and warn the abnormal tire pressure online. Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) monitors the tire pressure based on the wheel speed signals of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). In this paper, an indirect TPMS method is proposed to estimate the tire pressure according to its resonance frequency of circumferential vibration. Firstly, the errors of ABS wheel speed sensor system caused by the machining tolerance of the tooth ring are estimated based on the measured wheel speed using Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm and the measuring errors are eliminated from the wheel speed signal. Then, the data segments with drive train torsional vibration are found out and eliminated by the methods of correlation analysis.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Journal Article

Design and Position Control of a Novel Electric Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0812
The electric vehicles and the intelligent vehicles put forward to new requirements for the brake system, such as the vacuum-independent braking, automatic or active braking, and regenerative braking, which are the key link for the vehicle’s safety and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this article, a novel integrated power-assisted actuator of brake system is proposed to satisfy the brake system requirements of the electric vehicles and intelligent vehicles. The electronic brake booster system is designed to achieve the function of boosting pedal force of driver, being independent on vacuum source, supplying autonomous or active braking. It is mainly composed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, and a reaction disk. The scheme design and power-assisted braking control are the key for the electronic actuator.
Journal Article

Design and Power-Assisted Braking Control of a Novel Electromechanical Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0762
As a novel assist actuator of brake system, the electromechanical brake (EMB) booster has played a significant role in the battery electric vehicles and automatic driving vehicles. It has advantages of independent to vacuum source, active braking, and tuning pedal feeling compared with conventional vacuum brake booster. In this article, a novel EMB booster system is proposed, which is consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction by gears and ball screw, a servo body, and a reaction disk. Together with the hydraulic control unit, it has two working modes: active braking for automatic drive and passive braking for driver intervention. The structure and work principle of the electric brake booster system is first introduced. The precise control from pedal force to hydraulic pressure is the key for such a power-assisted brake actuator. We translate the control problem of force feedback control to position tracking control.
Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Characteristics Identification Strategy for Adaptive Cruise Control System with Lane Change Assistance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0432
Adaptive cruise control system with lane change assistance (LCACC) is a novel advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which enables dual-target tracking, safe lane change, and longitudinal ride comfort. To design the personalized LCACC system, one of the most important prerequisites is to identify the driver’s individualities. This paper presents a real-time driver behavior characteristics identification strategy for LCACC system. Firstly, a driver behavior data acquisition system was established based on the driver-in-the-loop simulator, and the behavior data of different types of drivers were collected under the typical test condition. Then, the driver behavior characteristics factor Ks we proposed, which combined the longitudinal and lateral control behaviors, was used to identify the driver behavior characteristics. And an individual safe inter-vehicle distances field (ISIDF) was established according to the identification results.
Technical Paper

Driving Behavior Prediction at Roundabouts Based on Integrated Simulation Platform

2018-04-03
2018-01-0033
Due to growing interest in automated driving, the need for better understanding of human driving behavior in uncertain environment, such as driving behavior at un-signalized crossroad and roundabout, has further increased. Driving behavior at roundabout is greatly influenced by different dynamic factors such as speed, distance and circulating flow of the potentially conflicting vehicles, and drivers should choose whether to leave or wait at the upcoming exit according to these factors. In this paper, the influential dynamic factors and driving behavior characteristics at the roundabout is analyzed in detail, random forest method is then deployed to predict the driving behavior. For training the driving behavior model, four typical roundabout layouts were created under a real-time driving simulator with PanoSim-RT and dSPACE. Traffic participants with different motion style were also set in the simulation platform to mimic real driving conditions.
Journal Article

GPS Modeling for Vehicle Intelligent Driving Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0763
In recent years, intelligent vehicles have become one of the major research topics in vehicle engineering and have created a new opportunity for the automotive industry. Simulation and real experiment are both essential to the development of intelligent vehicle technologies. Vehicle positioning systems, such as global positioning system (GPS), play an important role in intelligent vehicle development. The GPS model plays a major part in the development of intelligent vehicle simulation systems. Primarily focusing on application requirements of intelligent vehicle simulation platforms for GPS sensor modeling, considering the major factors affecting positioning accuracy in vehicle driving environments, this article establishes a new GPS model and algorithm based on the physical and functional characteristics of GPS. As the basis of this model system, a precise ephemeris model is established to obtain the coordinates of GPS satellites at any given time.
Technical Paper

Identification of Driver Individualities Using Random Forest Model

2017-09-23
2017-01-1981
Driver individualities is crucial for the development of the Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS). Due to the mechanism that specific driving operation action of individual driver under typical conditions is convergent and differentiated, a novel driver individualities recognition method is constructed in this paper using random forest model. A driver behavior data acquisition system was built using dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Based on that, the driving data of the tested drivers were collected in real time. Then, we extracted main driving data by principal component analysis method. The fuzzy clustering analysis was carried out on the main driving data, and the fuzzy matrix was constructed according to the intrinsic attribute of the driving data. The drivers’ driving data were divided into multiple clusters.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pneumatic Braking Force Control for the Emergency Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0824
As bottom layer actuator for the AEB system, the active brake system and the brake force control of tractor-semitrailer have been the hot topics recently. In this paper, a set of active pneumatic brake system was designed based on the traditional brake system of tractor-semitrailer, which can realize the active brake of the vehicle under necessary conditions. Then, a precise mathematical model of the active pneumatic brake system was built by referring the flow characteristics of the solenoid valve, and some tests were implemented to verify the accuracy and validity of the active brake system model. Based on the model, an active pneumatic brake pressure control strategy combining the feedforward and feedback controlling modes was designed. By generating the PWM control signal, it can precisely control the desired wheel cylinder brake pressure of the active brake system. Finally, the brake pressure control strategy was validated both by simulation tests and bench tests.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Validation for an Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Equipped with the Electro-Mechanical Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0828
The intelligent and electric vehicles are the future of vehicle technique. The development of intelligent and electric vehicles also promotes new requirements to many traditional chassis subsystems, including traditional braking system equipped with vacuum boosters. The Electro-Mechanical Booster is an applicable substitute of traditional vacuum booster for future intelligent and electric vehicles. It is independent of engine vacuum source, and can be combined with electric regenerative braking. A complete system model is necessary for system analysis and algorithm developing. For this purpose, the modeling of electro-hydraulic braking system is necessary. In this paper, a detailed electro-hydraulic braking system model is studied. The system consists of an electro-mechanical booster and hydraulic braking system. The electro-mechanical booster which mainly contains a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and a set of transmission mechanism is the critical component.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Control of Vehicle Chassis Planar Stability Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0471
In the past decades, the stability of vehicles has been improved significantly by use of variety of chassis control systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS), Electric Stability Program (ESP) and Active Front Steering (AFS). Recently, in order to further improve the performance of vehicles, more and more researches are focused on the integration control of multiple degrees of freedom of vehicle dynamic. However, in order to control multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, the nonlinear problems caused by the coupling between different degrees of freedom have to be solved, which is always a difficult task. In this paper, a three-degrees-of-freedom single track vehicle model, in which some nonlinear terms are considered, is built firstly. Then, the nonlinear model is processed by the fuzzy technique and the T-S fuzzy model is designed.
Technical Paper

Pressure Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0829
The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) is a critical component of the novel brake system for electric intelligent vehicles. It is independent of engine vacuum source, provides powerful active brake performance and can be combined with electric regenerative braking. In this paper, a brake control algorithm for hydraulic brake system equipped with an Ebooster is proposed. First, the configuration of the Ebooster is introduced and the system model including the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and hydraulic brake system is established by Matlab/Simulink. Second, a Four-closed-loop algorithm is introduced for accurate active brake pressure control. Finally, according to the requirement of different brake force, series of simulations are carried out under active braking condition. The results show that the control algorithm introduced in this paper can ensure the brake hydraulic pressure tracking a target value precisely and show a good control performance.
Technical Paper

Recognition and Classification of Vehicle Target Using the Vehicle-Mounted Velodyne LIDAR

2014-04-01
2014-01-0322
This paper describes a novel recognition and classification method of vehicle targets in urban road based on a vehicle-mounted Velodyne HDL64E light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The autonomous vehicle will choose different driving strategy according to the surrounding traffic environments to guarantee that the driving is safe, stable and efficient. It is helpful for controller to provide the efficient stagey to know the exact type of vehicle around. So this method concentrates on reorganization and classification the type of vehicle targets so that the controller can provide a safe and efficient driving strategy for autonomous ground vehicles. The approach is targeted at high-speed ground vehicle, so real-time performance of the method plays a critical role. In order to improve the real-time performance, some methods of data preprocessing should be taken to simplify the large-size long-range 3D point clouds.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Pedal Decoupling Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2019-04-02
2019-01-1108
Electrification and intelligence are the important development directions of vehicle techniques. The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) as a brake booster which is powered by a motor, can be used to replace the traditional vacuum booster. Ebooster not only improves the intelligence level of vehicle braking and significantly improves the braking performance, but also adapts to the application in new energy vehicles and facilitates coordinated regenerative braking. However, Ebooster cannot complete pedal decoupling independently. It needs to cooperate with other components to realize pedal decoupling. In this paper, a pedal decoupling control algorithm for regenerative brake, which is based on the coordination control of Ebooster and ESP, is proposed. First, regenerative braking strategy is designed to distribute the hydraulic brake force and regenerative braking force.
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