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Journal Article

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0599
Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this article, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

A Modular Power System Architecture for Military and Commercial Electric Vehicles

2010-11-02
2010-01-1756
Numerous modern military and commercial vehicles rely on portable, battery-powered sources for electric energy. Due to their highly specialized functions these vehicles are typically custom-designed, produced in limited numbers, and expensive. To mitigate the power system's contribution to these undesirable characteristics, this paper proposes a modular power system architecture consisting of “smart” power battery units (SPUs) that can be readily interconnected in numerous ways to provide distributed and coordinated system power management. The proposed SPUs contain a battery power source and a power electronics converter. They are compatible with multiple battery chemistries (or any energy storage device that can produce a terminal voltage), allowing them to be used with both existing and future energy storage technologies.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Technical Paper

A Sliding Mode Observer for Vehicle Slip Angle and Tire Force Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0865
In this paper, a sliding mode observer for estimating vehicle slip angle and tire forces is developed. Firstly, the sliding mode observer design approach is presented. A system damping is included in the sliding mode observer to speed the observer convergence and to decrease the observer chattering. Secondly, the sliding mode observer for vehicle states is developed based on a 7 DOF embedded vehicle model with a nonlinear tire model ‘UniTire’. In addition, since the tire lateral stiffness is sensitive to the vertical load, the load transfers are considered in the embedded model with a set of algebraic equations. Finally, a simulation evaluation of the proposed sliding mode observer is conducted on a validated 14 DOF vehicle model. The simulation results show the model outputs closely match the estimations by the proposed sliding mode observer.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Charge Sustaining Hybrid Powertrain for Motorsports

2018-04-03
2018-01-0416
The automotive industry is aggressively pursuing fuel efficiency improvements through hybridization of production vehicles, and there are an increasing number of racing series adopting similar architectures to maintain relevance with current passenger car trends. Hybrid powertrains offer both performance and fuel economy benefits in a motorsport setting, but they greatly increase control complexity and add additional degrees of freedom to the design optimization process. The increased complexity creates opportunity for performance gains, but simulation based tools are necessary since hybrid powertrain design and control strategies are closely coupled and their optimal interactions are not straightforward to predict. One optimization-related advantage that motorsports applications have over production vehicles is that the power demand of circuit racing has strong repeatability due to the nature of the track and the professional skill-level of the driver.
Technical Paper

Control Synthesis for Distributed Vehicle Platoon Under Different Topological Communication Structures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0494
The wireless inter-vehicle communication provide a manner to achieve multi-vehicle cooperative driving, and the platoon of automotive vehicle can significantly improve traffic efficiency and ensure traffic safety. Previous researches mostly focus on the state of the proceeding vehicle, and transmit information from self to the succeeding vehicle. Nevertheless, this structure possesses high requirements for controller design and shows poor effect in system stability. In this paper, the state of vehicles is not only related to the information of neighbor vehicles, while V2V communication transmit information over a wide range of area. To begin with, the node dynamic model of vehicle is described by linear integrator with inertia delay and the space control strategy is proposed with different topological communication structures as BF, LBF, PBF, etc.
Journal Article

Cooperative Optimization of Vehicle Ride Comfort and Handling Stability by Integrated Control Strategy

2012-04-16
2012-01-0247
Vehicle needs suspension and steering systems with different features to fit different driving conditions. In normal straight driving condition, soft suspension and heavy steering systems are needed to achieve better ride comfort and straight line driving stability; in turning conditions, hard suspension and lightweight steering systems are needed to get better handing stability. The semi-active suspension system with Magneto-Rheological dampers can improve the ride comfort and handling performance of vehicle. Electrical power steering system is developed rapidly due to its portable and flexible operations as well as stable steering performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of New Control Algorithm for Parallel Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

2006-10-31
2006-01-3571
The new control algorithm for parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented systematically, in which engine operation points are limited within higher efficient area by the control algorithm and the state of charge (SOC) is limited in a range in order to enhance the batteries' charging and discharging efficiency. In order to determine the ideal operating point of the vehicle's engine, the control strategy uses a lookup table to determine the torque output of the engine. The off-line simulation model of parallel HEV power train is developed which includes the control system and controlled objective (such as engine, electric motor, battery pack and so on). The results show that the control algorithm can effectively limite engine and battery operation points and much more fuel economy can be achieved than that of conventional one.
Technical Paper

Development of Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles Based on a Power Sharing Strategy Using Terrain Information

2016-04-05
2016-01-1242
Since road electric vehicles typically require a significantly variable and random load power demand in response to traffic conditions, such as frequent sequences of acceleration and deceleration and uphill followed by downhill runs. In this context, the energy management system of electric vehicle must ensure an effective power distribution between battery and supercapacitor to satisfy load demand. In this paper, the power management control strategy of hybrid energy storage system is developed by introducing terrain information to optimize system efficiency and battery lifetime. In this presented research, we aim at developing a power management control strategy considering the influence of the terrain information on system efficiency and battery lifetime.
Technical Paper

Electrochemical Characteristics of Cubic ZnFe2O4 Anode for Li-Ion Batteries at Low Temperature

2016-04-05
2016-01-1215
The poor low-temperature behavior of Li-ion batteries has limited its application in the field of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Many previous studies concentrate on developing new type of electrolyte to solve this problem. However, according to recent research, the key limitation at low temperature is the low diffusivity of lithium ion in the anode electrodes. Hence, it is potential to study anode materials to improve low-temperature behavior of LIBs. ZnFe2O4 with higher theoretical capacity is low toxicity and abundance, contributing to its commercial application. Different ZnFe2O4 crystalline shapes have different particle sizes. Among them, the cubic ZnFe2O4 with smaller particle size will increase its own electronic and ionic conductance at lower temperature. In this regard, we evaluated low-temperature performance of LIBs with ZnFe2O4 cubes as anode materials at -25°C.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerant Control Against Actuator Failures of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0405
A fault tolerant control (FTC) approach based on reconfigurable control allocation for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles against driving motor failures is proposed in order to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability after the driving motor failures. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using model predictive control method; 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels aiming at minimizing the total tire usage. The FTC approach is based on the reconfigurable control allocation which reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Supervisory Based Variable Frequency Control Strategy for Active Battery/Supercapacitor Combination in Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1203
This paper describes a novel power management control strategy of battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system to improve system efficiency and battery lifetime. In the presented research, the high and low frequency power demand in the load is separated by a Haar wavelet transform algorithm to overcome the problem of battery overload work and associated degeneration in battery lifetime resulting from an ineffective distribution between battery and supercapacitor. The purpose of frequency distribution is that the supercapacitor is used to share high frequency power components of load power demand to smooth the power demand applied to battery. However, the sole frequency control often fails to realize the optimal utilization of supercapacitor because of the uncertain variation in the driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Improvements on the Start Performance of Diesel Engine by Fuel Control Strategy Optimization and Heating Measures

2008-06-23
2008-01-1646
The incomplete combustion and misfire of diesel engine during starting result in unwanted white smoke. The histories of combustion and emission in different phases under different start conditions were studied in this paper. The optimization of the fuel injection control strategy under start conditions was performed. When the diesel engine is started under low temperature, the control strategy adapted to start the engine with a certain constant fuel mass injected per cycle, there may be misfire cycles in the initial period or in the transitional process, which is mainly caused by the mismatch between the fuel mass injected per cycle and the instantaneous engine speed. Therefore, an optimized control strategy was put forward, namely, the engine starts with high fuel mass injection in the first several cycles and then decreases step by step during the transitional period until it operates at idle condition. This strategy was validated to decrease significantly the misfire cycles.
Technical Paper

Lateral Stability Control Algorithm of Intelligent Electric Vehicle Based on Dynamic Sliding Mode Control

2016-09-14
2016-01-1902
A new lateral stability control method, which is based on vehicle sideslip angle and tire cornering stiffness estimation, is proposed to improve the lateral stability of the four-in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicle (FIWMD-EV) in this paper. Through the lateral tire force information, vehicle sideslip angle can be estimated by the extended kalman filter (EKF). Using the estimated vehicle sideslip angle, tire cornering stiffness can be also estimated by forgetting factor recursive least squares (FFRLS). Furthermore, combining with the vehicle dynamics model, an adaptive control target model is proposed with the information on vehicle sideslip angle and tire cornering stiffness. The new lateral stability control system uses the direct yaw moment control (DYC) based on dynamic sliding mode is proposed. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed vehicle state estimation and lateral stability control system are verified by CarSim and Simulink cosimulation.
Technical Paper

Research on the Dynamic Integration Control for Distributed-Traction Electric Vehicle with Four-Wheel-Distributed Steering System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0814
With rapid development of the automobile industry and the growing maturity of the automotive electronic technologies, the distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering/braking/traction systems is regarded as an important development direction. With its unique chassis structure, it is the ideal benchmark platform used to evaluate active safety systems. The distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering system is essentially full drive-by-wire vehicle. With its flexible chassis layout and high control degrees-of-freedom, the full drive-by-wire electric vehicle acted as a kind of redundant system is an ideal platform for the research of integrated control. In this treatise, the longitudinal dynamics of the electric vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Studies on Steering Feeling Feedback System Based on Nonlinear Vehicle Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1494
The steer-by-wire system has been widely studied due to many advantages such as good controllability. In the system, the steering column is cancelled and the driver can't feel the feedback torque (also called steering feeling) coming from the ground. Therefore a steering feeling feedback system is needed. In this paper, we propose a simple method to calculate desired feedback torque based on a nonlinear 2DOF vehicle model. The vehicle model contains the nonlinearity of tire. So that the proposed method is also appropriate for big acceleration conditions. Besides that, the properties of steering system such as friction and stiffness are also taken into consideration. As for conventional steering system, driver can only feel part of the feedback torque due to the power assist system. In order to provide steering feeling similar to conventional steering system, a weighting function is proposed to compensate the influence of power assist system.
Technical Paper

The Algorithmic Research of Multi-operating Mode Energy Management System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0988
The traditional energy management algorithm is mainly based on a single driving cycle, it is obvious that many factors might be often neglected by designer, such as different driving cycles would suit for different control strategies. But they tend to make decisions on the balance of torque distribution and battery power that based on a single driving cycle. Therefore, it is very difficult to achieve the optimal control in each case. In this paper we introduce a new design concept of Multi-operating mode energy management, a mathematical model of the energy management applied to a hybrid vehicle system is presented. Results of simulations using the model with the Multi-operating mode energy management were compared with results of simulations using a model with the single mode energy management, allowing the energy efficiency evaluation of the proposed energy management system.
Technical Paper

The Research on Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy of Synergic Electric System of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2007-08-05
2007-01-3481
Supercapacitor has the merits of low resistance and long lifecycle ability. When combined with battery, they can alleviate the burthen of battery, increase the battery's working efficiency and prolong its lifecycle. This paper introduces a control architecture based on balancing of SOC and algorithm based on fuzzy logic, Aiming at the two different cycles that have sufficient and insufficient energy that can be recovered from braking unlikely, this paper puts forward the methods of on-line adjusting fuzzy control parameters. Consequently, simulation was performed,and the results validate the effective adapting capacity of the control logic under different driving cycles.
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