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Technical Paper

Effect of Reformer Gas on HCCI Combustion - Part I:High Octane Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0208
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines offer high fuel efficiency and some emissions benefits. However, it is difficult to control and stabilize combustion over a sufficient operating range because the critical compression ratio and intake temperature at which HCCI combustion can be achieved varies with operating conditions such as speed and load as well as with fuel octane number. Replacing part of the base fuel with reformer gas, (which can be produced from the base hydrocarbon fuel), alters HCCI combustion characteristics in varying ways depending on the replacement fraction and the base fuel auto-ignition characteristics. Injecting a blend of reformer gas and base fuel offers a potential HCCI combustion control mechanism because fuel injection quantities and ratios can be altered on a cycle-by-cycle basis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Reformer Gas on HCCI Combustion - Part II: Low Octane Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0206
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers high fuel efficiency and some emissions benefits. However, it is difficult to control and stabilize combustion over a significant operating range because the critical compression ratio and intake temperature at which HCCI combustion can be achieved vary with operating conditions such as speed and load as well as with fuel octane number. Replacing part of the base fuel with reformer gas, (which can be produced from the base hydrocarbon fuel), alters HCCI combustion characteristics in varying ways depending on the replacement fraction and the base fuel auto-ignition characteristics. Because fuel injection quantities and ratios can be altered on a cycle-by-cycle basis during operation, injecting a variable blend of reformer gas and base fuel offers a potential HCCI combustion control mechanism.
Technical Paper

Fuel Tank and Charcoal Canister Fire Hazards during EVAP System Leak Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-1235
The combination of on-board diagnostics and evaporative emission control (EVAP) systems has led to a growing need to identify and repair leaks in automotive EVAP systems. The normal leakfinding method involves purging the system with a smoke fluid, usually air or nitrogen containing an oil aerosol and then looking for a visual indication of the leak. The purge flow used to distribute smoke through the system displaces substantial amounts of fuel vapor from the tank vapor space and can also raise the oxygen level inside the fuel system. If any ignition source is present, the formation of flammable mixtures both inside and outside the vehicle systems can lead to a flash fire hazard associated with leak finding procedures. Currently available fire statistics (such as NFPA) are not sufficiently detailed to attribute service shop fires to specific testing procedures.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Value Assessment (LCVA) Comparison of Conventional Gasoline and Reformulated Gasoline

1998-02-23
980468
Fuel choices are being made today by consumers, industry and government. One such choice is whether to use reformulated gasoline to replace regular unleaded gasoline. A second choice involves the source of crude oil, with synthetic crude oil from tar sands currently expanding its share of the Canadian supply. Decision makers usually work with the direct economic consequences of their fuel choice. However, they generally lack the knowledge to measure environmental aspects of different fuel systems. This paper uses Life Cycle Value Assessment (LCVA) to demonstrate how the life cycle environmental aspects can be compared for alternative fuel choices. LCVA is an engineering decision making tool which provides a framework for the decision maker to consider the key economic and environmental impacts for the entire life cycle of alternative products or process systems.
Journal Article

Oxygenated Fuel Considerations for In-Shop Fuel System Leak Testing Hazards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0554
Because of domestic production from renewable sources and their clean burning nature, alcohols, especially ethanol, have seen growing use as a blending agent and replacement for basic hydrocarbons in gasoline. The increasing use of alcohol in fuels raises questions on the safety of these fuels under certain non-operational situations. Modern vehicles use evaporative emission control systems to minimize environmental emissions of fuel. These systems must be relatively leak-free to function properly and are self-diagnosed by the vehicle On-Board Diagnostic system. When service is required, the service leak testing procedures may involve forcing test gases into the “evap” system and also exposure of the fuel vapors normally contained in the system to atmosphere. Previous work has discussed the hazards involved when performing shop leak testing activities for vehicles fuelled with conventional hydrocarbon gasoline [1, 2].
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a Converted RABA 2356 Bus Engine in Diesel and Dual Fuel Diesel/Natural Gas Operation

1993-08-01
931823
Diesel engined buses are the major means of transportation in many urban and suburban areas. Compared with other transportation systems, bus fleets are flexible, effective and low in capital cost. However, existing buses contribute to a serious air pollution problem in many cities. They also consume large amounts of diesel fuel, which is a concern for national economies where locally available natural gas could displace the more expensive petroleum-based fuel. New engine designs significantly reduce pollutants and some use alternative fuels. However, there is a huge infrastructure of existing diesel buses. Expensive new buses or bus engines will only gradually displace them, particularly in countries with weaker economies. The urgently required fuel replacement and pollution reduction benefits must be deferred into the future. These factors lead to the requirement for an economically viable, clean-burning conversion system to convert existing diesel engines to natural gas fuel.
Technical Paper

Symmetric Negative Valve Overlap Effects on Energy Distribution of a Single Cylinder HCCI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1250
The effects of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine energy distribution and waste heat recovery are investigated using a fully flexible Electromagnetic Variable Valve Timing (EVVT) system. The experiment is carried out in a single cylinder, 657 cc, port fuel injection engine fueled with n-heptane. Exergy analysis is performed to understand the relative contribution of different loss mechanisms in HCCI engines and how VVT changes these contributions. It is found that HCCI engine brake thermal efficiency, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) power to heat ratio, the first and the second law efficiencies are improved with proper valve timing. Further analysis is performed by applying the first and second law of thermodynamics to compare HCCI energy and exergy distribution to Spark Ignition (SI) combustion using Primary Reference Fuel (PRF). HCCI demonstrates higher fuel efficiency and power to heat and energy loss ratios compared to SI.
Technical Paper

Tailpipe Emissions Comparison Between Propane and Natural Gas Forklifts

2000-06-19
2000-01-1865
It is commonly stated that natural gas-fueled forklifts produce less emissions than propane-fueled forklifts. However, there is relatively little proof. This paper reports on a detailed comparative study at one plant in Edmonton, Canada where a fleet of forklift trucks is used for indoor material movement. (For convenience, the acronym NGV, ie. Natural Gas Vehicle is used to designate natural gas-fueled and LPG, ie. Liquified Petroleum Gas, is used to designate propane-fueled forklifts). Until recently the forklift trucks (of various ages) were LPG carburetted units with two-way catalytic converters. Prompted partially by worker health concerns, the forklifts were converted to fuel injected, closed-loop controlled NGV systems with three-way catalytic converters. The NGV-converted forklifts reduced emissions by 77% (NOX) and 76% (CO) when compared to just-tuned LPG forklifts.
Technical Paper

The University of Alberta Four-Stroke Ski-Doo MXZ-X Conversion

2002-10-21
2002-01-2760
The University of Alberta Clean Snowmobile Challenge Team used a modified 2000 Bombardier Ski-Doo MXZ-X for the 2002 Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC). A Suzuki GSX-R 600 engine with a custom tuned port fuel injection system and custom exhaust system weree installed to maximize power while reducing emissions and noise from the snowmobile. This design was intended to meet the objectives of the CSC2002 competition which were a 50% reduction in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions and a reduction in noise to 74 dBA at 15 m (50 ft.) and wide open throttle (WOT). The reduction in emissions was easily achieved through the use of a four stroke engine with fuel injection and exhaust catalyst. The team was unable to meet the noise reduction goal although the entry was significantly quieter than the stock control snowmobile.
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