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Journal Article

1-D Simulation Study of Divided Exhaust Period for a Highly Downsized Turbocharged SI Engine - Scavenge Valve Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1656
Fuel efficiency and torque performance are two major challenges for highly downsized turbocharged engines. However, the inherent characteristics of the turbocharged SI engine such as negative PMEP, knock sensitivity and poor transient performance significantly limit its maximum potential. Conventional ways of improving the problems above normally concentrate solely on the engine side or turbocharger side leaving the exhaust manifold in between ignored. This paper investigates this neglected area by highlighting a novel means of gas exchange process. Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) is an alternative way of accomplishing the gas exchange process in turbocharged engines. The DEP concept engine features two exhaust valves but with separated function. The blow-down valve acts like a traditional turbocharged exhaust valve to evacuate the first portion of the exhaust gas to the turbine.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

A Driver Advisory Tool to Reduce Fuel Consumption

2013-03-10
2012-01-2087
Driver behaviour can strongly affect fuel consumption, and driver training in eco-driving techniques has been shown to reduce fuel consumption by 10% on average. However the effects of this training can be short-lived, so there is an apparent need for continuous monitoring of driver behaviour. This study presents a driver advisory tool which encourages eco-driving, and its evaluation in the field. The system, developed by Ashwoods Automotive Ltd (UK) and the University of Bath (UK), is aimed at fleet operators of light commercial vehicles, where the driver is typically a company employee. A significant strength of the system is that it has been designed for easy integration with the vehicle CAN-bus, reducing complexity and cost. By considering the Inertial Power Surrogate (speed times acceleration) the core algorithm is able to identify behaviour which is likely to increase fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2596
Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

2016-10-17
2016-01-2328
Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Journal Article

Assessing the Impact of FAME and Diesel Fuel Composition on Stability and Vehicle Filter Blocking

2019-01-15
2019-01-0049
In recent years, there has been an impetus in the automotive industry to develop newer diesel injection systems with a view to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This development has led to hardware capable of higher pressures, typically up to 2500 bar. An increase in pressure will result in a corresponding increase in fuel temperature after compression with studies showing changes in fuel temperatures of up to 150 °C in 1000-2500 bar injection systems. Until recently, the addition of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, FAME, to diesel had been blamed for a number of fuel system durability issues such as injector deposits and fuel filter blocking. Despite a growing acceptance within the automotive and petrochemical industries that FAME is not solely to blame for diesel instability, there is a lack of published literature in the area, with many studies still focusing on FAME oxidation to explain deposit formation and hardware durability.
Technical Paper

Automated Calibration of an Analytical Wall-Wetting Model

2007-01-23
2007-01-0018
This paper describes the development and automated calibration of a compact analytically based model of the wall-wetting phenomenon of modern port fuel-injected (PFI) spark-ignition (SI) gasoline engines. The wall-wetting model, based on the physics of forced convection with phase change, is to be used in an automated model-based calibration program. The first stage of work was to develop a model of the wall-wetting phenomenon in Matlab. The model was then calibrated using experimental data collected from a 1.8-litre turbocharged I4 engine coupled to a dynamic 200kW AC dynamometer. The calibration was accomplished by adopting a two stage optimization approach. Firstly, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to establish the effect of the principal model parameters on a set of metrics that characterized the magnitude and duration of the measured lambda deviation during a transient.
Technical Paper

Behaviours of a GDI Gasoline Engine during Start

2014-04-01
2014-01-1374
Vehicle start-stop systems are becoming increasingly prevalent on internal combustion engine (ICE) because of the capability to reduce emissions and fuel consumption in a cost effective manner. Thus, the ICE undergoes far more starting events, therefore, the behaviour of ICE during start-up becomes critical. In order to simulate and optimise the engine start, Model in the Loop (MiL) simulation approach was selected. A proceduralised cranking test has been carried out on a 2.0-liter turbocharged, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine to collect data. The engine behaviour in the first 15 seconds was split into eight different phases and studied. The engine controller and the combustion system were highly transient and interactive. Thus, a controller model that can set accurate boundary conditions is needed. The relevant control functions of throttle opening and spark timing have been implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the behaviours of the controller.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimisation of an Adaptive Safety Monitor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0867
Fuel economy and emission challenges are pushing automotive OEMs to develop alternative hybrid-electric, and full-electric powertrains. This increases variation in potential powertrain architectures, exacerbating the already complex control software used to coordinate various propulsion devices within the vehicle. Safety of this control software must be ensured through high-integrity software monitoring functions that detect faults and ensure safe mitigating action is taken. With the complexity of the control software, this monitoring functionality has itself become complex, requiring extensive modification for each new powertrain architecture. Significant effort is required to develop, calibrate, and verify to ensure safety (as defined by ISO 26262). But this must also be robust against false fault-detection, thereby maximising vehicle availability to the customer.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Low Cost High Performance Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motor

2013-04-08
2013-01-1760
A large proportion of automotive engineering research is focused on the reduction of vehicle fuel consumption thereby reducing CO₂ emissions. One effective method is to use an electric motor in conjunction with the engine (hybrid electric vehicle). This paper details the development and performance characteristics of a low cost hybrid vehicle electric motor, originally developed for the retrofit hybrid vehicle market, although it is intended to be suitable for many applications. The motor is a low cost, scalable, high performance motor, primarily for automotive applications. The motor has been designed to make it stackable for higher power or torque requirements. The use of lightweight materials and innovative cooling designs are novel to this motor. Results obtained from extensive testing of the motor are detailed in the paper including the efficiency map, power and torque curves, continuous powers, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of a Low Cost Production Automotive Engine for Range Extender Application for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1055
Range Extended Electric Vehicles (REEVs) are gaining popularity due to their simplicity, reduced emissions and fuel consumption when compared to parallel or series/parallel hybrid vehicles. The range extender internal combustion engine (ICE) can be optimised to a number of steady state points which offers significant improvement in overall exhaust emissions. One of the key challenges in such vehicles is to reduce the overall powertrain costs, and OEMs providing REEVs such as the BMW i3 have included the range extender as an optional extra due to increasing costs on the overall vehicle price. This paper discusses the development of a low cost Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of c.25 kW for a range extender application utilising a 624 cc two cylinder automotive gasoline engine. Changes to the base engine are limited to those required for range extender development purposes and include prototype control system, electronic throttle, redesigned manifolds and calibration on European grade fuel.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Behaviour of a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0829
Many Diesel engine development programs concentrate almost exclusively on steady state investigations to benchmark an engines performance. In reality, the inter-action of an engine's sub-systems under transient evaluation is very different from that evident during steady state evaluation. The transient operation of a complete engine system is complex, and collecting test data is very demanding, requiring sophisticated facilities for both control and measurement. This paper highlights the essential characteristics of a Diesel engine when undertaking testbed transient manouevres. Results from simple transient sequences typical of on-road operation are presented. The tests demonstrate how transient behaviour of the engine deviates greatly from the steady state optimum settings used to control the engine.
Technical Paper

Elucidation of Aircraft Energy Use Through Time-Variant Exergy Analysis

2011-10-18
2011-01-2683
Increases in fuel costs and environmental concerns have in recent years heightened the importance of fuel efficiency as a design consideration in vehicles, especially aircraft. For this reason, a greater understanding of the energy consumption of vehicles is needed, both for design and operational decisions. Exergy, a measure of available work in an imbalance of state, allows systems to be compared on an equal basis with losses and waste being equated to fuel costs. Vehicles and especially aircraft do not operate in steady state as do industrial plants, the traditional subject of exergy analysis. While some analysis of aircraft has been performed in the literature, time-variance has not been addressed, leading to a lack of detail and only very broad conclusions. It is proposed that in order to fully understand aircraft energy use, a fully time-variant analysis must be performed.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1262
The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

Explore and Extend the Effectiveness of Turbo-compounding in a 2.0 litres Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1279
After years of study and improvement, turbochargers in passenger cars now generally have very high efficiency. This is advantageous, but on the other hand, due to their high efficiency, only a small portion of the exhaust energy is needed for compressing the intake air, which means further utilization of waste heat is restricted. From this point of view, a turbo-compounding arrangement has significant advantage over a turbocharger in converting exhaust energy as it is immune to the upper power demand limit of the compressor. However, with the power turbine being located in series with the main turbine, power losses are incurred due to the higher back pressure which increases the pumping losses. This paper evaluates the effectiveness that the turbo-compounding arrangement has on a 2.0 litres gasoline engine and seeks to draw a conclusion on whether the produced power is sufficient to offset the increased pumping work.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0640
Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis.
Technical Paper

Improving Heat Transfer and Reducing Mass in a Gasoline Piston Using Additive Manufacturing

2015-04-14
2015-01-0505
Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing to the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power densities. Thus, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coolant Temperature and Flow Rate, and Air Flow on Knock Performance of a Downsized, Highly Boosted, Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0664
The causes of engine knock are well understood but it is important to be able to relate these causes to the effects of controllable engine parameters. This study attempts to quantify the effects of a portion of the available engine parameters on the knock behavior of a 60% downsized, DISI engine running at approximately 23 bar BMEP. The engines response to three levels of coolant flow rate, coolant temperature and exhaust back pressure were investigated independently. Within the tested ranges, very little change in the knock limited spark advance (KLSA) was observed. The effects of valve timing on scavenge flow and blow through (the flow of fresh air straight into the exhaust system during the valve overlap period) were investigated at two conditions; at fixed inlet/exhaust manifold pressures, and at fixed engine torque. For both conditions, a matrix of 8 intake/exhaust cam combinations was tested, resulting in a wide range of valve overlap conditions (from 37 to -53°CA).
Technical Paper

Inner-Insulated Turbocharger Technology to Reduce Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Modern Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0184
With more focus on real world emissions from light-duty vehicles, the interactions between engine and after-treatment are critical. For modern engines, most emissions are generated during the warm-up phase following a cold start. For Diesel engines this is exaggerated due to colder exhaust temperatures and larger aftertreatment systems. The De-NOx aftertreatment can be particularly problematic. Engine manufacturers are required to take measures to address these temperature issues which often result in higher fuel consumption (retarding combustion, increasing engine load or reducing the Diesel Air-fuel-ratio). In this paper we consider an inner-insulated turbocharger as an alternative, passive technology which aims to reduce the exhaust heat losses between the engine and the aftertreatment. Firstly, the concept and design of the inner-insulated turbocharger is presented.
Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling Systems for Passenger Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-1248
Electric coolant pumps for IC engines are under development by a number of suppliers. They offer packaging and flexibility benefits to vehicle manufacturers. Their full potential will not be realised, however, unless an integrated approach is taken to the entire cooling system. The paper describes such a system comprising an advanced electric pump with the necessary flow controls and a supervisory strategy running on an automotive microprocessor. The hardware and control strategy are described together with the simulation developed to allow its calibration and validation before fitting in a B/C class European passenger car. Simulation results are presented which show the system to be controllable and responsive to deliver optimum fuel consumption, emissions and driver comfort.
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